Recommended reading

The significance of component cleanliness in production can be seen from the amount of interesting websites.

We’ve compiled a list of the most important ones.
What does technical cleanliness actually mean? Wikipedia has an answer.

The IPA Fraunhofer Institute conducts research on the subject of technical cleanliness and initiated the first standards for measuring residual contamination of components and systems. (only in German)

VDA volume 19, the authoritative guideline on cleanliness analysis, can be ordered on the VDA website.

The most important fairs on the subject:



The website of the Hydac company features a downloadable  “Cleanliness manual“ giving reference values for cleanliness coding.

Selected  service providers in the field of particle analysis in Germany:



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