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  • Step by Step Guide for FRAP Experiments

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) has been considered the most widely applied method for observing translational diffusion processes of macromolecules. State of the art laser scanning microscopes such as the Leica TCS SP8 have the advantage of using a high intensity laser for…
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  • In the Catacombs of the Capuchin Monastery in Palermo

    It has always been a deeply rooted human need to give life a meaning after death. At the end of the 16th century, the friars of the Capuchin monastery in Palermo, Italy, began preserving corpses by embalming them.
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  • Stereo microscopes with TripleBeam Technology

    Especially in fluorescence microscopy, excitation light is friend and foe in one. On the one hand, energy-rich excitation via a specific light wavelength of the fluorochrome resulting in a bright positive fluorochrome signal is highly welcome. On the other hand, "noise" caused by reflections of…
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  • Unmask the Hidden without Probes: CARS

    Fluorescence microscopy assumed a pivotal role in cell biology once it was possible to stain cell components selectively by fluorescing dyes. One of the first explorers of targeted stainings, Paul Ehrlich, had the idea that something that stains specifically should also kill specifically – which…
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  • Every Clue Counts – Forensics Inconceivable Without Microscopy

    There is no crime without clues. They may be obvious, like a cartridge case at the scene of the crime or clear signs of crowbar damage on a door. But sometimes, clues are microscopically small. Besides the classic fingerprints, perpetrators also leave hairs or fiber traces.
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  • STED and GSDIM: Diffraction Unlimited Resolution for all Types of Fluorescence Imaging

    This article gives an overview of two different types of superresolution techniques. Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy is a versatile and fast method that is based on point scanning microscopy – usually an extension of a confocal microscope. Ground state depletion imaging (GSDIM) is a…
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  • The White Confocal – Spectral Gaps Closed

    This article summarizes the development and differences in design and functionality of confocal technology as far as spectral properties are concerned, from classical filter-based excitation and emission color selection to fully flexible spectral excitation and emission tuning. All three major…
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  • Detectors for Sensitive Detection: HyD

    This article discusses detectors (more precisely: sensors), that are employed in single point, i.e. true confocal scanning microscopes. The sensors in such systems are usually photomultiplier tubes. Also, the silicon pendants of PMTs are used for particular applications, especially single-molecule…
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  • The White Confocal

    Modern biomedical research is currently dominated by imaging and measuring with optical microscopes. One branch of the microscopy technology is confocal microscopy. For correlation purposes, multiparameter fluorescence imaging is particularly of unique interest. This article is concerned with the…
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  • Molecular Developmental Biology: Norwegian Marine Research Scientists Solve the Mysteries of Evolution

    The human nervous system is an infinitely complex network consisting of some 100 billions of neurons. It is the result of many-faceted evolutionary processes spanning millions of years which, like the development of other organ systems, have been little researched so far.
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  • A Word on Cathodoluminescence

    Cathodoluminescence microanalysis is an emerging technique that is fast gaining popularity in the world of materials science. CL is a light emission phenomena resulting from the electron beam excitation of a luminescent material.
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  • Gates Open for Improved Confocal Fluorescence and Super-Resolution STED

    True confocal microscope systems feature single-point illumination and single-point detection. The method is called "optical sectioning" since the generated image contains only information from the focal plane. The serial detection offers highly efficient and low-noise sensors for signal conversion.…
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  • Widefield Calcium Imaging with Calcium Indicator Fura2

    In eukaryotic cells Ca2+ is one of the most widespread second messengers used in signal transduction pathways. Intracellular levels of Ca2+ are usually kept low, as Ca2+ often forms insoluble complexes with phosphorylated and carboxylated compounds. Typically cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations are in the…
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  • 100 Years of Binoculars and Quantitative Microscopy

    One hundred years ago, in 1913, the Optische Werke Ernst Leitz in Wetzlar, predecessor of Leica Microsystems CMS GmbH, made two inventions that were to blaze the trail for modern microscopy: the binocular tube and the integrating stage for quantitative microscopy.
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  • Brief Introduction to Critical Point Drying

    One of the uses of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is in the study of surface morphology in biological applications which requires the preservation of the surface details of a specimen. Samples for Electron Microscopy (EM) imaging need to be dried in order to be compatible with the vacuum in…
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  • The Principles of Polarization Contrast

    Polarization contrast microscopy is a convenient way to make birefringent crystalline structures like starch grains or cellulose visible without staining. This tutorial will explain the optical elements in the light path and the operating mode of polarization contrast taking the example of an…
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  • 50 Years of Image Analysis

    Modern image analysis systems perform highly sophisticated image processing functions on images from an automated microscope and digital camera. 50 years ago, the first image analysis system was analogue, based on a video camera and the area measurements could be read from a meter. Nevertheless, it…
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  • Tips & Tricks for Using Digital Microscopes

    Digital microscopes provide new opportunities and enhance workflow for measurement and documentation in quality control in 2D and 3D applications. Here, you can find a collection of videos showing set-up tips and tricks for optimal image acquisition. Learn about the use of the zoom lens, the BGA…
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  • Optogenetics

    Optogenetics is a technique that allows light-controlled responses of transfected cells. The cells are genetically modified by introduction of genes that code for light-induced channels or ion pumps. The term optogenetics denotes the light control feature introduced by genetic engineering.
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  • Digital Microscopy

    Digital microscopy offers clear advantages for a large number of industrial quality inspections, particularly for surface analysis. Here, you can find some videos that show examples of application for digital microscopy.
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  • Trends in Microscopy

    There are digital cameras, digital TV sets, digital picture frames, digital schools on the internet. Cryptologists design digital signatures, communication researchers speak of digital identity. Digital may be an overused buzzword, but digital technology has undeniably revolutionized our world ever…
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  • 3D Visualization of Surface Structures

    One of the main features of a digital microscope is the speed and ease with which it enables surface models to be created of macroscopic and microscopic structures. In a qualitative evaluation, these provide a better understanding and a more detailed documentation of the specimen. In addition,…
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  • Even Insect Fragments Throw Light on How Crimes Are Committed: How Forensic Biologist Dr. Mark Benecke Gains Insights

    Many people know Germany’s most famous forensic biologist, Dr. Mark Benecke from Cologne, from TV documentaries showing how crimes are solved. Benecke is a welcome guest on talk shows on topics such as forensic trace analysis, murder or the depths of the human psyche in general. He also enjoys an…
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  • Principles of Multiphoton Microscopy for Deep Tissue Imaging

    Basics of multiphoton microscopy. This interactive tutorial explains the principles of multiphoton microscopy for deep tissue imaging. Multiphoton microscopy uses excitation wavelengths in the infrared taking advantage of the reduced scattering of longer wavelengths. This makes multiphoton imaging…
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  • Sensors for True Confocal Scanning

    In this article, advantages and disadvantages of different types of sensors for single point true confocal scanning devices are discussed. Traditionally, photomultiplier tubes have been employed in such systems. For some cases, avalanche photodiodes have proven to fit best. A new development uniting…
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