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  • Video Tutorial: How to Change the Bulb of a Fluorescence Lamp Housing

    When applying fluorescence microscopy in biological applications, a lamp housing with mercury burner is the most common light source. This video tutorial shows how to change the bulb of a traditional fluorescence lamp housing.
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  • Video Tutorial: How to Align the Bulb of a Fluorescence Lamp Housing

    The traditional light source for fluorescence excitation is a fluorescence lamp housing with mercury burner. A prerequisite for achieving bright and homogeneous excitation is the correct centering and alignment of the bulb inside the housing. This video tutorial presents an easy-to-copy way to align the mercury bulb in a fluorescence lamp housing.
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  • How a Fingerprint Is Traced to the Person Who Made It – Interactive Microscope System Facilitates Dactyloscopist Training

    “We have to take your fingerprints.” This sentence is spoken in nearly every TV crime drama to a suspect sitting in the interrogation room. But what exactly is it that makes a fingerprint so valuable for detectives in real life? How do fingerprint experts, known as dactyloscopists, perform their jobs?
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  • Label-free FLIM

    Many biological samples exhibit autofluorescence. Its often broad spectra can interfere with fluorescent labeling strategies. This application letter demonstrates how autofluorescence can serve as an intrinsic contrast in fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) resulting in multi-color image stacks.
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  • FRET with FLIM

    FLIM combines lifetime measurements with imaging: lifetimes obtained for each image pixel are color-coded to produce additional image contrast. Thus, FLIM delivers information about the spatial distribution of a fluorescent molecule together with information about its biochemical status or nano-environment. A typical application of FLIM is FLIM-FRET. FRET is a well-established technique to study molecular interactions. It scrutinizes protein binding and estimates intermolecular distances on an Angström scale as well.
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  • Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy ( FCS ) measures fluctuations of fluorescence intensity in a sub-femtolitre volume to detect such parameters as the diffusion time, number of molecules or dark states of fluorescently labeled molecules. The technique was independently developed by Watt Webb and Rudolf Rigler during the early 1970s.
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  • Widefield Super-Resolution with GSDIM

    Great advancements in biology have been possible by using fluorescence microscopy. So far, the resolution of the images was limited due to physical constraints. In the past couple of years, new methods evolved circumventing these limitations and bringing fluorescence microscopy to a new level of resolution, boosting the possibilities in science with fluorescence microscopes.
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  • White Light Laser

    The perfect light source for confocal microscopes in biomedical applications has sufficient intensity, tunable color and is pulsed for use in lifetime fluorescence. Furthermore, it should offer means to avoid reflection of excitation light, and the coupling into the beam path must be efficient and homogeneous throughout the full visible spectrum. Such a source has been invented and implemented: the white light laser in combination with acousto-optical beam splitting.
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  • The Principles of Modulation Contrast

    Modulation contrast creates 3D-like images of unstained specimens, rendering it the contrasting method of choice for applications like e.g. in vitro fertilization, where DIC is not possible (due to the usage of plastics) or phase contrast does not deliver satisfying results. This tutorial explains the optical elements in the light path and the operating mode of the modulation contrast.
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  • Webinar: Fast Point Scanning Confocal Microscopy

    Are you interested in learning more about the latest Leica confocal innovations for high speed imaging and sensitive detection? Then this webinar is for you.
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  • Webinar: Introducing the New Leica TCS SP8 Confocal Platform

    Discover Ultra-detailed Imaging with the Leica TCS SP8 ...
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  • The Principles of Phase Contrast

    In this tutorial the principle of phase contrast imaging is described taking the example of an inverted research microscope. Additionally, the alignment of the components needed for phase contrast is shown in the interactive part of the tutorial.
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  • Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED)

    Among the new super-resolution technologies, stimulated emission depletion (STED) is the most versatile concept. Whether the sample is tissue, e.g. muscle striation details, classical cytoskeletons, nuclear proteins, yeast or bacterial details: STED serves for understanding structure and function by showing the very finest details.
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  • Depletion and Emission Beam Paths in STED Microscopy

    STED is one technology, and it requires already additional beam-routings as compared to pure fluorescence imaging. The Leica TCS SP5 offers configurations with STED, confocal and multiphoton imaging in the very same instrument. This unique concept unites technologies of super-resolution fluorescence, multichannel confocal fluorescence, multiphoton-excited fluorescence and second-harmonic or higher order nonlinear image generation. The various beam-paths are shown and explained in this tutorial.
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  • Beam Paths of a Continuous Wave STED Microscope

    This tutorial gives on overview of the excitation of an detection light path with a continuous wave (CW) STED microscope.
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  • Stereo microscopes in the EU’s Plant Inspection

    Exotic fruits and sun-kissed vegetables – we have long been accustomed to a huge selection of culinary delicacies that are available fresh in stores on a daily basis. Sometimes, however, these goods flown in from far away carry along unwanted passengers: pests, fungi, or viruses, which cannot be seen with the naked eye.
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  • STED Super-Resolution Microscopy (Nanoscopy) - Principles and Photophysics

    This tutorial focusses on the principles of STED super-resolution microscopy. The underlying photo physical processes are explained - e.g. with the help of a Jablonski diagram - and the integration into a confocal laser scanning microscope.
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  • Controlling the TIRF Penetration Depth is Mandatory for Reproducible Results

    The main feature of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is the employment of an evanescent wave for the excitation of fluorophores instead of using direct light. A property of the evanescent wave, which arises from the glass/water or glass/specimen interface, is that its propagation in z-direction gradually degrades, limiting its penetration depth into the specimen to some hundred nanometers.
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  • Quantitative Fluorescence

    Seeing is believing – and measuring is knowing. Microscopes generate images that are not only used for illustration, but are also subject to quantification. More advanced techniques use illumination patterns (without image formation) or do not generate an image at all – but are still microscopical techniques. These F-techniques are becoming increasingly important in current biosciences.
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  • Live-Cell Imaging

    The understanding of complex and fast cellular dynamics is an important step to get insight into biological processes. Therefore, today’s life science research more and more demands studying physiological events on the molecular level in real-time.
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  • Applications of TIRF Microscopy in Life Science Research

    The special feature of TIRF microscopy is the employment of an evanescent field for fluorophore excitation. Unlike standard widefield fluorescence illumination procedures with arc lamps, LEDs or lasers, the evanescent field only penetrates the specimen by about 100 nm starting from the coverslip/medium interface.
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  • Antimicrobial Coating for Educational Microscopes

    Bacteria are part of our world. There are countless numbers of them in the human body and they are completely harmless. But in people with a weak immune system or at the wrong place they can cause serious illness. Educational microscopes that pass through many hands are potential breeding grounds for germs. To solve this problem...
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  • Live-cell Imaging Techniques

    The understanding of complex and/or fast cellular dynamics is an important step for exploring biological processes. Therefore, today’s life science research is increasingly focusing on dynamic processes like cell migration, morphological changes of cells, organs or whole animals and physiological (e.g. changes of intracellular ion composition) events in living specimens in real time.
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  • Differential Interference Contrast

    The examination of live unstained biological specimens often suffers from poor contrast and therefore bad visibility of the specimen. Thick specimens in particular, such as brain slices, show up as nothing more than light grey structures instead of single cells. This tutorial explains the optical elements in the light path and the operating mode of DIC (differential interference contrast) on the example of an inverted and motorized high-end research light microscope which can be used for transmitted light contrasting methods and fluorescence microscopy.
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  • Factors to Consider When Selecting a Stereo Microscope

    Stereo microscopes are often nicknamed the workhorse of the lab or the production department. Users spend many hours behind the ocular inspecting, observing, documenting or dissecting samples. Which factors need to be considered when selecting...
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