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  • Integrated Modulation Contrast (IMC)

    Hoffman modulation contrast has established itself as a standard for the observation of unstained, low-contrast biological specimens. The integration of the modulator in the beam path of themodern inverted microscopes allows a wide range of brightfield or phase objectives to be used, rather than a…
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  • Koehler Illumination

    This tutorial demonstrates the basic steps for setting up a correct illumination of specimen with transmitted (and reflected) light.
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  • Confocal Microscopy

    “Confocal Microscopy” refers to a particular optical microscope that allows recording optical sections. Optical sectioning is achieved in a confocal system by illuminating and observing a single diffraction limited spot.
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  • One of Our Last Horizons

    An insight into the unknown world of the deep sea was given in an exhibition staged by the Senckenberg Society together with the Natural History Museum in Basel, Switzerland. Shown in Frankfurt am Main and Berlin, Germany, the "Deep Sea" exhibition was a huge public success in 2009. From May to…
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  • Users Report on the Relevance of Laser Microdissection for Their Research Results

    Laser dissection is used in a large number of research fields, e.g. neurology, cancer research, plant analysis. Here, user report on the research results they have attained by using laser microdissection.
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  • Mapping Billions of Synapses with Microscopy and Mathematics

    A combination of widefield imaging techniques and image segmentation analysis enable researchers to map learning-induced functional changes in individual synapses throughout the hippocampus.
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  • Good Vibrations

    In recent years, new molecular imaging techniques, such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy (CARS), have been developed for rapid vibrational imaging of living cells.
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  • Restless Receptors

    Synapses are the switch-points in our brain for information transmission, learning and memory. News studies and developments of imaging techniques have provided new insights into the dynamics of glutamate receptors. The use of superresolution technologies is making an essential contribution to this…
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  • Sniffing Out the Secrets of Social Behavior

    Yet we are only just beginning to understand the complexities and functional differences of the sense of smell in mammals. Prof. Marc Spehr, head of the Department of Chemosensation at RWTH Aachen University since 2009, explains his findings on the neuronal mechanisms of olfactory perception and…
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  • CARS and Confocal

    The most important drawback of single-photon and multiphoton confocal microscopy is the need to label the specimen. CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy) addresses this issue because it is non-toxic, non-destructive, and minimally invasive.
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  • Exploring the Concert of Neuronal Activities

    Brain research using Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy. Using imaging techniques such as confocal and two-photon microscopy, neuronal dendritic arborization of neurons and their synaptic interconnections can be visualized.
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  • Deep Tissue Imaging

    Developmental biology using Multiphoton microscopy with OPO. To gain new insight into the fundamental control of cell response to physical changes and to study the dynamics and roles of biological flow during the development of the zebrafish, Dr. Julien Vermot established his lab last year at the…
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  • What is an OPO?

    Multiphoton microscopy with OPO: imaging with excitation wavelengths up to 1.300 nm. Because light scattering is dependent on the wavelength, better tissue penetration can be achieved by using longer excitation wavelengths. This is where excitation with infrared light, two-photon processes, and…
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  • Wilhelm Fabry – Surgeon, Inventor, and Publicist

    Before academic education for medical practitioners became the norm, barber-surgeons treated wounds and performed minor operations as members of the tradesmen’s guild as late as the end of the 16th century. The surgeon Wilhelm Fabry, born in Hilden in 1560, Germany, was not content with this…
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  • State-of-the-Art Microscope Enables New Vitreoretinal Surgery Technique

    In pars plana vitrectomy, three ocular incisions are normally made. Thanks to the superb optics and the unique illumination concept of the Leica M844 F40, Dr. Luca Cappuccini from Reggio Emilia Hospital in Italy can operate without one of the incisions for certain vitreoretinal procedures. This…
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  • Making the Finest Blood Vessels Visible

    Cerebrovascular disease, which can be triggered or result from a ruptured aneurysm, is the third most common cause of death in industrial countries and the main cause of severe long-term disability and the need for lifelong care. Dr. Joaquim Enseñat, neurosurgeon at the Clinic de Barcelona Hospital…
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  • Steel – the All-Rounder That Has to Pass Many Tests

    Steel is a real all-rounder. However, each application requires a specifi c sort of steel grade. Without steel there would be no Olympic stadiums, wind energy plants, bridges, skyscrapers, trains, planes, cars, razor blades or knives for medical and home use – at least, not of the quality and design…
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  • Precision That Saves Eyesight

    Retina surgery demands experienced surgeons and precision technology. In vitreoretinal surgery, the surgeon operates with microscissors and forceps that are less than a millimeter thick. The Swiss company Alcon Grieshaber is one of the world’s leading specialists in handheld instruments for…
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  • Intraocular Lenses

    Only a few decades ago, the diagnosis ‘cataracts’ meant loss of vision in the near future. Today, cataract surgery is the most common operation worldwide.
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  • How Sharp Images Are Formed

    In microscopy, depth of field is often seen as an empirical parameter. In practice it is determined by the correlation between numerical aperture, resolution and magnification. For the best possible visual impression, the adjustment facilities of modern microscopes produce an optimum balance between…
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  • Confocal Nanoscopy Goes Multicolor

    Scientists strive to understand the architecture of life. They want to learn how biological structures are arranged in respect to one another. Multicolor superresolution imaging allows fundamental questions to be addressed by far-field fluorescence microscopy in unprecedented detail.
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  • Antique Underwater Treasures Endangered

    In the 2nd century BC, Baiae in the Gulf of Naples was a notorious bathing resort and spa for wealthy Romans. Today, part of the town is submerged under the sea and can be visited as an 80,000 square metre archaeological underwater park. The magnificent mosaics from the underwater ruins are analysed…
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  • Ancient Feast of Color

    Everyone knows that antique marble sculptures were white. Or were they? Scientists of the Copenhagen Polychromy Network (CPN) help to show that the statues of the Greeks and Romans were decorated with extravagant ornaments and sumptuous colours. With the help of a surgical microscope and digital…
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  • Restoring Former Glory with Cotton Buds and a Microscope – The Princely Collections of Liechtenstein

    On her way to work, Ruth Klebel is often approached by tourists asking for the times of guided tours. She always gives the same answer before disappearing behind the wide automatic gate: “I’m afraid there aren’t any, this is private property.” As a restorer of the collections of the Prince of…
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  • Cochlea Implants for the Deaf and Severely Hard of Hearing

    People who can’t hear are outsiders, cut off from normal conversation. Children born into a silent world never learn to talk. Adults who lose their hearing due to age, accident or illness are no longer able to participate in social life as they did before and are moreover often branded as…
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