Contact & Support
Header Image
  • Pinhole Effect in Confocal Microscopes

    When operating a confocal microscope, or when discussing features and parameters of such a device, we inescapably mention the pinhole and its diameter. This short introductory document is meant to explain the significance of the pinhole for those, who did not want to spend too much time to dig into theory and details of confocal microscopy but wanted to have an idea about the effect of the pinhole.
    Read article
  • Correlation of Phenotype and Genotype – microscopic samples and their biomolecular backgrounds

    Seeing is believing, this is what makes microscopes, imaging systems, or box-type imagers so important for researchers in many different fields like pathology research, cancer research, neuroscience, and developmental research. Correlation of phenotype (what you can see) and genotype (genetic background) is highly desired but often biased by whole tissue approaches as no real solution is available to reliably separate the single cells of interest and surrounding tissue. Thus, results of DNA mutation analysis (sequencing), gene expression profiling (quantitative real-time PCR, qPCR, microarray, digital PCR), next generation sequencing (NGS) or mass spectrometry (MS) approaches can give mixed results as no pure starting material for the biomolecular methods of choice is available.
    Read article
  • Work Efficiently in Developmental Biology and Medical Research with Stereo Microscopy: Rodent and Small Animal Surgery

    This report provides information which can help improve the routine work of scientists and technicians performing studies involving surgery on small animals and rodents, i.e. mice, rats, hamsters etc., for developmental biology or medical research. The aim is to help make the work steps efficient and cost-effective, where the employment of microscopes is necessary. It also gives useful hints and details on the various microscopes which can be used in a developmental biology or medical research laboratory where small animal or rodent surgery is exploited.
    Read article
  • Navigating Through the Brain

    One of the challenges of neurosurgery is orientation at the surgical site. When resecting tumors, removing arteriovenous malformations, or clipping aneurysms, surgeons often have to work near healthy and functional brain tissue. When resecting the tumor, the challenge is always to spare as much healthy tissue as possible. Neuronavigation technology, also referred to as Image Guided Surgery (IGS) enables surgeons to plan the ideal approach before making a cut and helps to execute that plan by providing intraoperative orientation.
    Read article
  • Sylvian dissection with ICG, viewed with FL800 fluorescence

    In vascular and neoplastic surgery sylvian dissection is an essential skill. The neurosurgeon needs to recognize the superficial sylvian vein (SSV) in order to safely and accurately achieve a wide opening of the sylvian fissure. A report by Dr. Hisashi Kubota and his colleagues at the Department of Neurosurgery, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, Japan, discusses the benefits of indocyanine green (ICG) videoanigiography to demarcate the SSV at the beginning of a sylvian dissection, particularly in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Observation of ICG was enabled by an FL800 vascular fluorescence module from Leica in combination with an M525 OH4 neurosurgical microscope.
    Read article
  • Milestones in Incident Light Fluorescence Microscopy

    Since the middle of the last century, fluorescence microscopy developed into a bio scientific tool with one of the biggest impacts on our understanding of life. Watching cells and proteins with the help of fluorescence molecules is a standard method in nearly every life science discipline today. This broad application range goes back to the technical work of some researchers who wanted to improve and simplify fluorescence microscopic labor. One person who was involved in that development was the Dutch medic Johann Sebastiaan Ploem.
    Read article
  • Contrast Enhancement of Polycrystalline Metals - Sample Preparation for SEM

    Application Note - Ion milling is a perfect alternative for chemical etching, especially for polycrystalline metals, such as copper. Ion milling can be used to increase the contrast of the grain structure and their interfaces. In contrast to chemical etching the milling process is clean, safe and easy to operate. Ion energy and milling time depend on the milling rate of the metal.
    Read article
  • Forensics: How to Gather Evidence from Hair, Fibers, Paint, Explosives, and Insects Fast and Easily with Digital Microscopy

    Digital microscopes have no eyepieces and the image is observed directly on a monitor. They are very popular for a variety of applications in multiple fields. State-of-the-art digital microscopes, such as the Leica DVM6, allow an efficient workflow for forensic analysis. Examples of how forensic scientists can gather evidence from hair, fibers, paint layers, explosive residues/small particles, and insects efficiently using the Leica DVM6 digital microscope are described in this report.
    Read article
  • Cross Sectioning of Cadmiumsulphide (CdS) for Cathodoluminescence

    Cathodoluminescence can be used to achieve spectra and high resolution images of impurity and structural defects in semicondoctors, minerals and insulating materials. This application note explains how to prepare a perfect sample surface for carhodoluminescence and how to use ion beam slope cutting to prepare the sample surface free of any preparation artefacts.
    Read article
  • Cross Sectioning of Copper for Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD)

    Application Note for Leica EM TIC 3X - Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) is a surface technique creating diffraction patterns (Kikuchi-bands). It can be used for crystal orientation mapping, defect studies, phase identification, grain boundary studies and morphological studies. The information depth is just a few nm, therefore good sample preparation is very important to avoid damages.
    Read article
  • Porous Ceramics - Sample Preparation for SEM

    Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - Ceramic membrane filters with pore sizes down to a few nanometres must be investigated in cross-section with regard to the structure of the pores. The smallest pores are of special interest. In most cases, conventional grinding methods cannot be used for such problems, as the pore structure would be distorted. This applies in particular to the pores in the nanometre range.
    Read article
  • Digital Microscopy with Versatile Illumination and Various Contrast Methods for More Efficient Inspection and Quality Control

    State-of-the-art digital microscopes utilizing a versatile illumination system capable of achieving multiple contrast methods, such as the Leica DVM6, are very useful for inspection, quality control, and failure analysis. These contrast methods allow flaws or defects on the surface of a product or component to be more easily and rapidly detected.
    Read article
  • Removal of Surface Layers - Sample Preparation for SEM and TEM

    Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - Sometimes it is necessary to remove surface layers to gain access to the real surface structure. That can be a native oxide, or layers coming from the preparation process itself, like re-deposition. Depending on the layers thickness and the energy used for the cleaning process, it takes between a few seconds and half an hour. The energy depends on the milling rate of the material.
    Read article
  • Semiconductor Structures with Large Differences in Hardness - Sample Preparation for SEM

    Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - In most cases, multi-layer structures or material combinations with large differences in hardness cannot be processed with conventional polishing techniques, or can only be very poorly processed. Due to the large differences in hardness, blurring or edge-rounding occurs, which distorts the original structure. In the application example shown, we are dealing with a solder ball structure. The goal was to determine the solder structure. The use of conventional grinding and polishing techniques was not possible due to the large differences in hardness between the solder ball and other materials in the sample.
    Read article
  • Chronic Inflammation Under the Microscope

    In the course of chronic inflammation certain body areas are recurrently inflamed. This goes along with many human diseases. With the help of widefield light microscopy, the underlying processes can be examined from a cellular level to whole organisms. This article presents several widefield microscopy applications such as immunofluorescence, live-cell imaging, histology, and ratiometric analysis to get insight into the development of chronic inflammation, the related diseases, and their treatment.
    Read article
  • Cross Section of Solar Cells

    Application Note for Leica EM TIC020, Leica EM TIC 3X - Cross section of a complete solar cell.
    Read article
  • Cross Sectioning of a Multilayer System - Preparation of a Perfect Sample Surface for EBSD

    Application Note for Leica EM TIC 3X - Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) is a surface technique creating a diffraction pattern (Kikuchi-bands). It can be used for crystal orientation mapping, defect studies, phase identification, grain boundary studies and morphology studies. The information depth is just a few nm. Therefore good sample preparation is very important to avoid any damage. This is very difficult in case of multilayer system with big differences in hardness.
    Read article
  • TIRF Publication List

    This monthly updated references list presents current papers using Leica AM TIRF in the major application fields for TIRF microscopy.
    Read article
  • Multilayer Systems with Widely Different Sputter Rates - Sample Preparation for TEM

    Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - The multi-layer system to be prepared in cross-section consists of a Si substrate, a TiN layer with a thickness of a few nm and a 500 nm W layer. All these components have extreme differences in their hardness, their atomic weight and in their sputter rates. A preparation of this kind of samples with sample rotation would lead to a wall overlying the area of the layers.
    Read article
  • Multiphoton Microscopy Publication List

    Multiphoton Microscopy is an advanced technique for imaging thick samples. Applications range from the visualization of the complex architecture of the whole brain to the study of tumor development and metastasis or the responses of the immune system in living animals. On this regularly updated reference list you can find selected publications on reseach using multiphoton microscopy.
    Read article
  • In-Containing Compound Semiconductors - Sample Preparation for TEM

    Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - Previous studies showed that surface accumulation of In occurs when InP was milled in a conventional way with Ar ions. The consequence is In islands on the sample surface. This leads to low quality of TEM samples. To remove these islands, reactive ion milling with iodine ions (RIBE / CAIBE) can be used. This method has the disadvantage of polluting the ion guns and the vacuum system of the ion milling device and leads to chemical reactions with the sample material. To avoid these problems we prepared these samples very gently with low energy Ar ions.
    Read article
  • Factors to Consider When Selecting a Research Microscope

    An optical microscope is often one of the central devices in a life-science research lab. It can be used for various applications which shed light on many scientific questions. Thereby the configuration and features of the microscope are crucial for its application coverage, ranging from brightfield through fluorescence microscopy to live-cell imaging. This article provides a brief overview of the relevant microscope features and wraps up the key questions one should consider when selecting a research microscope.
    Read article
  • Carbon Coating for Polymeric Materials

    Application Note fo Leica EM ACE600 - A solid understanding of polymer property-structure relationships is critical to improve and shorten development routes to new products. A direct way to determine correlations between structure and mechanical properties is provided by electron microscopy. Electron microscopy techniques have an important advantage over other methods, as they can provide local information at high spatial resolution. However, a major problem with polymers is their inherent lack of contrast.
    Read article
  • How to Acquire High-Resolution Anatomic Ocular Tissue Information with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, non-contact imaging modality used to visualize and monitor changes to the morphology of biological tissue. OCT employs low-coherence interferometry to create cross-sectional images that reveal sub-surface details of the tissues of interest. In the most common ophthalmic applications OCT systems use near-infrared light to generate high-resolution, volumetric images of tissue microstructures including the cornea, iris, crystalline lens, vitreous and retina. These images can enhance insight into pathological conditions such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
    Read article
  • How Intrasurgical OCT can Provide Additional Information During Ophthalmic DMEK Procedures

    Replacing diseased Descemet’s membrane with a donor graft is an especially delicate procedure. Accurate positioning and full adherence to the stroma are crucial for optimal patient outcomes. These videos illustrate how intrasurgical OCT can provide additional information during each stage of a DMEK procedure.
    Read article