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  • Five Questions Asked: Prof. Dr. Jacco van Rheenen speaks about the most important considerations when imaging deep into mouse tissue

    When operating a confocal microscope, or when discussing features and parameters of such a device, we inescapably mention the pinhole and its diameter. This short introductory document is meant to explain the significance of the pinhole for those, who did not want to spend too much time to dig into theory and details of confocal microscopy but wanted to have an idea about the effect of the pinhole.
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  • Methods to Calibrate and Scale Axial Distances in Confocal Microscopy as a Function of Refractive Index

    Application example of HyVolution Super-Resolution - Accurate distance measurement in 3D confocal microscopy is important for quantitative analysis, volume visualization and image restoration. However, axial distances can be distorted by both the point spread function (PSF) and by a refractive-index mismatch between the sample and immersion liquid, which are difficult to separate. Additionally, accurate calibration of the axial distances in confocal microscopy remains cumbersome, although several high-end methods exist. In this paper we present two methods to calibrate axial distances in 3D confocal microscopy that are both accurate and easily implemented.
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  • Bacteria Protocol - Critical Point Drying of E. coli for SEM

    Application Note for Leica EM CPD300 - Critical point drying of E. coli with subsequent platinum / palladium coating and SEM analysis. Sample was inserted into a filter disc (Pore size: 16 - 40 μm) and placed into the filter discs and porous pots holder. Cultivate fungi and bacteria on agar containing growth medium for 3 days.
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  • Structural Study of C. elegans

    Application Note for Leica EM ICE, Leica EM AFS2 - Wildtype L4 stage C. elegans (N2 strain) were placed in the 100 μm deep side of Lecithin-coated (see detailed protocol*) type A 3 mm Cu/Au carriers (Leica) with extracellular filler containing 1% (w/v) Agarose type IX and 2% (w/v) Bovine Serum Albumin in bacteria medium (see preparation details**) and sandwiched with the flat side of Lecithin-coated type B 3 mm Cu/Au carriers (Leica). Samples were frozen in a high-pressure freezer (Leica EM ICE).
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  • Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons

    Application Note for Leica EM ICE - Rat Hippocampal neurons, cultured on 50 μm thick Aclar (Aclar embedding film, EMS) for 19 days, were frozen in the 100 μm deep side of lecithin coated (detailed protocol Appendix I) type A 3 mm Cu/Au carriers (Leica) and sandwiched with the flat side of lecithin coated type B 3 mm Cu/Au carriers (Leica). No additional filler was used, only cell culture medium with the addition of Hepes buffer pH 7.2 to a final concentration of 25 mM. Samples were frozen in a high-pressure freezer (Leica EM ICE).
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  • Black Mould Protocol

    Application Note for Leica EM CPD300 - Critical point drying of Black mould (Aspergilus niger) with subsequent platinum / palladium coating and SEM analysis to detect conidiospores. Sample was inserted into a filter disc (Pore size: 16 - 40 μm) and placed into the filter discs and porous pots holder.
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  • Human Blood Cells Protocol

    Application Note for Leica EM CPD300 - Life Science Research. Species: Human (Homo sapiens) Critical point drying of human blood with subsequent platinum / palladium coating and SEM analysis.
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