Leica Science Lab - Tag : 3D Imaging https://www.leica-microsystems.com//science-lab/tag/?tx_leicaacademy_pi4%5Baction%5D=show&tx_leicaacademy_pi4%5Bcontroller%5D=Tag&tx_leicaacademy_pi4%5Btag%5D=510&cHash=b6240c9a69f87d84d4442415cfdb7506 Article tagged with 3D Imaging en-US https://www.leica-microsystems.com/30687 Fluorescence Microscopy Stereo Microscopy Studying Adipose Tissue Development and Expansion This article discusses sharp, high-contrast imaging of whole mount adipose (fat) tissues specimens, which are thick and round (unsectioned), with a THUNDER Imager using Computational Clearing. Adipose tissue is important for the regulation of metabolism. The rise in obesity and health matters related to it, like diabetes and heart disease, has led to more research on adipose tissue development and expansion. Fluorescence microscopy is often used to investigate adipose tissue. However, when imaging 3D, whole mount specimens, specific challenges, like reducing image background and focusing over large, highly curved surfaces, should be overcome. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/studying-adipose-tissue-development-and-expansion/ Thu, 27 Aug 2020 08:00:00 +0000 PhD James DeRose, PhD Qing Tang https://www.leica-microsystems.com/28031 Basics in Microscopy Getting Sharper 3D Images of Thick Biological Specimens with Widefield Microscopy Widefield fluorescence microscopy is often used to visualize structures in life science specimens and obtain useful information. With the use of fluorescent proteins or dyes, discrete specimen components are marked in a highly specific manner. To fully understand a structure, visualizing it in 3 dimensions can be necessary, but certain challenges are faced when doing so with microscopy. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/getting-sharper-3d-images-of-thick-biological-specimens-with-widefield-microscopy/ Tue, 18 Aug 2020 08:00:00 +0000 Dr. Christoph Greb, PhD James DeRose, Dr. Rolf T. Borlinghaus https://www.leica-microsystems.com/26903 Confocal Microscopy Pore Scale Visualization of Drainage in 3D Porous Media by Confocal Microscopy This work reports new interesting findings concerning porous media infiltration which have direct implications for the fields of energy (oil recovery) and environment (CO2 sequestration and aquifer remediation). https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/pore-scale-visualization-of-drainage-in-3d-porous-media-by-confocal-microscopy/ Mon, 28 Oct 2019 07:07:00 +0000 D.Sc. Débora F. do Nascimento, M.Sc. Ronaldo Vimieiro Junior, PhD David R. Barbero, PhD Marcio Carvalho https://www.leica-microsystems.com/20212 EM Sample Preparation Metallography Quality Assurance Stereo Microscopy 3-Dimensional Imaging of Macroscopic Defects in Aluminum Alloys The investigation of macroscale defects in aluminum (Al) alloys with a rapid 3-dimensional (3D) imaging approach is described in this report. Aluminum (Al) alloys play an important role in the production of aircraft and vehicles, as well as products in other industries. Defects present in the Al alloy used for the production of aircraft, vehicles, or other products can have a significant effect on their quality, performance, and lifetime. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/3-dimensional-imaging-of-macroscopic-defects-in-aluminum-alloys/ Thu, 17 Oct 2019 07:00:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald, PhD James DeRose https://www.leica-microsystems.com/27569 Confocal Microscopy Improve 3D Cell Biology Workflow with Digital Light Sheet Microscopy Understanding the sub-cellular mechanisms in carcinogenesis is of crucial importance for cancer treatment. Popular cellular models comprise cancer cells grown as monolayers. But this approach disregards the three-dimensional (3D) interaction of tumor cells with their surrounding microenvironment. To understand the development and progression of malignancy in a close to nature context, the characterization of cancer microenvironments is crucial. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/improve-3d-cell-biology-workflow-with-digital-light-sheet-microscopy/ Sun, 10 Mar 2019 08:53:00 +0000 https://www.leica-microsystems.com/24669 Super-Resolution Extending Nanoscopy Possibilities with STED and exchangeable fluorophores When it comes to STED Nanoscopy, keeping high signal-to-noise is key to achieve the best possible resolution in fixed and living cells. This can be challenging in the case of experiments in 3D and/or with time series, where the sample undergoes many rounds of image acquisition and photobleaching becomes an issue. If fluorophores were completely immune to photobleaching, it should be possible to perform STED indefinitely using the same molecules over and over. In practice, one performs STED with the best available fluorophores in terms of brightness and photostability (Grimm, Muthusamy et al. 2017), and at high labeling densities. However, there is a clever alternative to come closer to the ideal situation: if “fresh” fluorophores replenish the sample in each round of STED, imaging will take place with intact fluorophores every time. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/extending-nanoscopy-possibilities-with-sted-and-exchangeable-fluorophores/ Tue, 12 Feb 2019 23:00:00 +0000 Dr. Julia Roberti https://www.leica-microsystems.com/24579 EM Sample Preparation Quick 3D imaging of alloy defects Aluminum (Al) alloys play an important role in the production of aircraft and vehicles, as well as products in other industries. Defects present in the Al alloy used for the production of aircraft, vehicles, or other products can have a significant effect on their quality, performance, and lifetime. Characterization of Al alloys in 3D can lead to a better understanding of defect formation and how to minimize or eliminate it. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/quick-3d-imaging-of-alloy-defects/ Thu, 13 Dec 2018 23:00:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/20642 EM Sample Preparation High Resolution Array Tomography with Automated Serial Sectioning The optimization of high resolution, 3-dimensional (3D), sub-cellular structure analysis with array tomography using an automated serial sectioning solution, achieving a high section density on the carrier substrate, is described in this report. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/high-resolution-array-tomography-with-automated-serial-sectioning/ Sun, 14 Oct 2018 22:00:00 +0000 Robert Ranner, PhD James DeRose https://www.leica-microsystems.com/20142 Multiphoton Microscopy Confocal Microscopy High-Resolution 3D Imaging of Whole Organ after Clearing Zebrafish testis has become a powerful model for reproductive biology of teleostean fishes and other vertebrates and encompasses multiple applications in applied and basic research. Many studies have focused on 2D images, which is time consuming and implies extrapolation of results. Three-dimensional imaging of whole organs recently became an important challenge to better understand their architecture and allow cell enumeration. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/high-resolution-3d-imaging-of-whole-organ-after-clearing/ Tue, 08 May 2018 22:00:00 +0000 https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19544 Stereo Microscopy Digital Microscopy Coming to Grips with Biological Information Through Flexible Organic Electronics: Developing Bendable and Stretchable Biosensors and Device What do you associate with the word sensor? Perhaps technologies delivering automation in factories and other production sites? That may be what comes to mind, but advances in organic electronics are now driving the rapid development of biological sensors that measure physiological signals when in contact with the skin, organs, and other parts of the body. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/coming-to-grips-with-biological-information-through-flexible-organic-electronics-developing-bendable-and-stretchable-biosensors-and-device/ Wed, 28 Jun 2017 10:14:00 +0000 Kuniko Yagura, PhD James DeRose https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18779 Multiphoton Microscopy BABB Clearing and Imaging for High Resolution Confocal Microscopy: Counting and Sizing Kidney Cells in the 21st Century Multipohoton microscopy experiment using Leica TCS SP8 MP and Leica 20x/0.95 NA BABB immersion objective. Understanding kidney microanatomy is key to detecting and identifying early events in kidney disease. Improvements in tissue clearing and imaging have been crucial in this field, and now we report on a novel, time-efficient method to study podocyte depletion in renal glomeruli using a combination of immunofluorescence, optical clearing, confocal microscopy and 3D analysis. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/babb-clearing-and-imaging-for-high-resolution-confocal-microscopy-counting-and-sizing-kidney-cells-in-the-21st-century/ Tue, 13 Sep 2016 09:03:00 +0000 Ph.D. Victor G. Puelles, Prof. John F. Bertram, MSc Stephen Firth, Prof. Ian Harper https://www.leica-microsystems.com/16587 Light Sheet Microscopy Live-Cell Imaging Confocal Microscopy Light Sheet Microscopy Turned Vertically Living cells and organisms often suffer from the high light intensities used for fluorescent imaging. Light sheet microscopy reduces phototoxic effects and bleaching by illuminating a specimen in only a single plane at a time. A new light sheet microscope combines light sheet and confocal microscopy in one system without compromising either functionality and allows the combination of the two methods, e.g. confocal photomanipulation with subsequent light sheet acquisition, for new applications. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/light-sheet-microscopy-turned-vertically/ Fri, 02 Oct 2015 13:34:00 +0000 PhD Isabelle Köster, Dr. Petra Haas https://www.leica-microsystems.com/16010 EM Sample Preparation Critical-point Drying for the Preparation of Biological Samples for MicroCT Analysis X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a routinely applied non-invasive technique for the investigation of the internal anatomy and morphology of organisms. As a result of a micro-CT scan a stack of grey-scale images is generated from a series of projections taken at defined angles during sample rotation. Since several years the number of lab-based micro-CT imaging systems is constantly growing making this technique available to a broad spectrum of researchers and applications. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/critical-point-drying-for-the-preparation-of-biological-samples-for-microct-analysis/ Mon, 06 Jul 2015 13:23:00 +0000 PhD Peter Michalik, PhD Elisabeth Lipke https://www.leica-microsystems.com/11767 Digital Microscopy Using Telecentric Optical Systems to Optimize Industrial Image Accuracy and Reproducibility When the first multi-lens microscopes were invented in 1590, scientists marveled at their new ability to SEE small objects and features in the natural world that were previously invisible to the eye and therefore seemingly nonexistent. With the constant miniaturization of parts and products in automated manufacturing over the past 5 decades, the use of microscopes has spread increasingly from science to industry. Today microscopes are found in a multitude of assembly and inspection applications wherever visualization and measurement of miniscule features are required. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/using-telecentric-optical-systems-to-optimize-industrial-image-accuracy-and-reproducibility/ Thu, 25 Jun 2015 18:57:00 +0000 Clinton Smith https://www.leica-microsystems.com/15606 Light Sheet Microscopy Confocal Microscopy Confocal and Digital Light Sheet Imaging Optical imaging instrumentation can magnify tiny objects, zoom in on distant stars and reveal details that are invisible to the naked eye. But it notoriously suffers from an annoying problem: the limited depth of field. Our eye-lens (an optical imaging instrument) has the same trouble, but our brain smartly removes all not-in-focus information before the signal reaches conscious cognition. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/confocal-and-digital-light-sheet-imaging/ Mon, 11 May 2015 07:15:00 +0000 Dr. Petra Haas, Dr. Rolf T. Borlinghaus https://www.leica-microsystems.com/14920 Multiphoton Microscopy CLEM Live-Cell Imaging Correlating Intravital Multi-Photon Microscopy to 3D Electron Microscopy of Invading Tumor Cells Using Anatomical Reference Points Cancer research unsing multiphoton microscopy and 3D electron microscopy. Correlative microscopy combines the advantages of both light and electron microscopy to enable imaging of rare and transient events at high resolution. Performing correlative microscopy in complex and bulky samples such as an entire living organism is a time-consuming and error-prone task. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/correlating-intravital-multi-photon-microscopy-to-3d-electron-microscopy-of-invading-tumor-cells-using-anatomical-reference-points/ Fri, 24 Apr 2015 13:06:00 +0000 https://www.leica-microsystems.com/15430 Multiphoton Microscopy Confocal Microscopy Live-Cell Imaging Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy – Label-Free 3D-Tissue Imaging and Blood Flow Characterization THG microscopy as special variants of multiphoton microscopy. Third Harmonic Generation (THG) microscopy is a non-fluorescent multi-photon technique that combines the advantages of label-free imaging with restriction of signal generation to the focal spot of the scanning laser. It allows three-dimensional imaging of refraction index mismatches and of hemoglobin. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/third-harmonic-generation-microscopy-label-free-3d-tissue-imaging-and-blood-flow-characterization/ Sat, 11 Apr 2015 17:34:00 +0000 Dr. Steffen Dietzel https://www.leica-microsystems.com/15132 Surface Metrology Nanoscale or Microscale Structures Formed in Polymers Containing Nanotubes Greatly Enhance the Electrical Conductivity: Potential Applications for Photovoltaic Devices The excellent mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes have led to them being exploited for the creation of a new class of high performance polymer composites. Due to important advances in the last few years, nanotube containing polymers have been developed for optoelectronic applications. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/nanoscale-or-microscale-structures-formed-in-polymers-containing-nanotubes-greatly-enhance-the-electrical-conductivity-potential-applications-for-photovoltaic-devices/ Fri, 27 Feb 2015 11:34:00 +0000 PhD James DeRose, Nicolas Boulanger, Patrice Belin, PhD David R. Barbero https://www.leica-microsystems.com/15077 Light Sheet Microscopy Nature Methods: Light-sheet Fluorescence Microscopy - Method of the Year 2014 Just about everyone who has examined fluorescent samples under the microscope is aware of the constant struggle to have enough signal to see the labeled structures while also avoiding fluorophore bleaching. What may be less apparent, at least to those who image bright, robust or fixed samples, is how stressful and potentially toxic to living cells and tissues it is to illuminate them with high-intensity light. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/nature-methods-light-sheet-fluorescence-microscopy-method-of-the-year-2014/ Wed, 14 Jan 2015 17:24:00 +0000 https://www.leica-microsystems.com/14647 Super-Resolution 3D STED (Stimulated Emission Depletion) Microscopy The resolution needed to image subcellular architecture and dynamics in light microscopy is hindered by the diffraction limits as described by Ernst Abbe. Simply stated, structures smaller than 200 nanometers are lost in a blur. However, the field of super-resolution microscopy has produced methods to obtain resolution beyond this limit. Leica Microsystems has pioneered this field and offers the Leica TCS SP8 STED 3X for 3D Stimulated Emission Depletion microscopy. STED instantly produces super-resolution images, compatible with the dynamics of living cells, without the need for post-processing. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/3d-sted-stimulated-emission-depletion-microscopy/ Tue, 14 Oct 2014 14:03:00 +0000 PhD Christopher Vega https://www.leica-microsystems.com/13883 Super-Resolution Video Interview with Timo Zimmermann The first super-resolution image he saw was an eye opener for him: "It was not just structures that got smaller. I was looking at a sample that I specifically had high hopes of seeing another layer of complexity and this actually was there." https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/video-interview-with-timo-zimmermann/ Wed, 10 Sep 2014 09:19:00 +0000 Dr. Timo Zimmermann, Dipl. oec.-troph. Anja Schué, PhD Isabelle Köster https://www.leica-microsystems.com/15992 Digital Microscopy Quality Assurance Are Your Digital Microscope Measurements Accurate and Reliable? For certain applications, such as the production and maintenance of automobiles, aircraft, or power plants, quality control and reliability assurance, as well as safety and health inspection, accurate and reliable image data with precise calibration are very important. Digital microscopes are appealing for a wide range of technical applications in various industries, such as automotive, aerospace, precision engineering, microelectronics, and medical devices. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/are-your-digital-microscope-measurements-accurate-and-reliable/ Mon, 08 Sep 2014 11:01:00 +0000 PhD James DeRose, Georg Schlaffer https://www.leica-microsystems.com/11133 Laser Microdissection Laser Microdissection (LMD) and Fancy Applications New and far-reaching applications have recently been opened up in the field of laser microdissection. In addition to conventional dissection, the laser microdissection system (LMD) of Leica Microsystems is an excellent tool for marking relevant structures, offering highly specific laser manipulation of selected areas. This laser marking function is useful for applications such as CLEM, NanoSIMS as well as in the live cell sector. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/laser-microdissection-lmd-and-fancy-applications/ Mon, 09 Dec 2013 13:02:00 +0000 M.Sc., Cornelia Gilbrich-Wille https://www.leica-microsystems.com/10555 Super-Resolution Three-Dimensional Super-Resolution GSDIM Microscopy With the new 3D GSDIM technique structures like the Golgi and the microtubular network are resolved not only laterally, but also in a third dimension. The principle is based on the use of optical astigmatism to determine the accurate lateral and axial position of individual fluorochromes. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/three-dimensional-super-resolution-gsdim-microscopy/ Wed, 04 Sep 2013 15:24:00 +0000 PhD Tamara Straube, Sebastian Bänfer, Prof. Ralf Jacob https://www.leica-microsystems.com/10447 Laser Microdissection Live-Cell Imaging EM Sample Preparation Confocal Microscopy From Dynamic Live Cell Imaging to 3D Ultrastructure: Novel Integrated Methods for High Pressure Freezing and Correlative Light-Electron Microscopy To correlate dynamic events in adherent cells with both ultrastructural and 3D information, we developed a method for cultured cells that combines confocal time-lapse images of GFP-tagged proteins with electron microscopy. With laser micro-patterned culture substrate, we created coordinates that were conserved at every step of the sample preparation and visualization processes. Specifically designed for cryo-fixation, this method allowed a fast freezing of dynamic events within seconds and their ultrastructural characterization. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/from-dynamic-live-cell-imaging-to-3d-ultrastructure-novel-integrated-methods-for-high-pressure-freezing-and-correlative-light-electron-microscopy/ Wed, 28 Aug 2013 11:41:00 +0000 https://www.leica-microsystems.com/15675 Light Sheet Microscopy Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy: Beyond the Flatlands Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LISH-M) is a true fluorescence optical sectioning technique, first described by Heinrich Siedentopf in 1902 under the name of Ultramicroscopy. Light sheet microscopy utilises a plane of light to optically section samples. This allows deep imaging within transparent tissues and whole organisms. This book chapter will provide the reader with a comprehensive view on this emerging technology. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/light-sheet-fluorescence-microscopy-beyond-the-flatlands/ Thu, 20 Dec 2012 14:05:00 +0000 https://www.leica-microsystems.com/6828 Digital Microscopy Quality Assurance Digital Microscopy Digital microscopy offers clear advantages for a large number of industrial quality inspections, particularly for surface analysis. Here, you can find some videos that show examples of application for digital microscopy. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/digital-microscopy-1/ Tue, 16 Oct 2012 22:00:00 +0000 Georg Schlaffer https://www.leica-microsystems.com/7246 Multiphoton Microscopy Developments in Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy Basics, history, and applications of multiphoton microscopy. Honouring Goeppert-Mayer’s prediction of simultaneous two-photon absorption by an atom or molecule reported in the 1930s in her PhD dissertation thesis, we can state that multiphoton excitation (MPE) microscopy, more frequently identified with two-photon excitation (2PE) fluorescence microscopy, is a key microscopy method in many areas from medicine to biology, from biophysics to materials science. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/developments-in-multiphoton-excitation-microscopy/ Sun, 07 Oct 2012 22:00:00 +0000 Prof. Alberto Diaspro https://www.leica-microsystems.com/5141 Digital Microscopy Quality Assurance Trends in Microscopy There are digital cameras, digital TV sets, digital picture frames, digital schools on the internet. Cryptologists design digital signatures, communication researchers speak of digital identity. Digital may be an overused buzzword, but digital technology has undeniably revolutionized our world ever since the invention of the computer and will continue to do so in future. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/trends-in-microscopy/ Wed, 19 Sep 2012 22:00:00 +0000 Daniel Goeggel, Dipl. oec.-troph. Anja Schué https://www.leica-microsystems.com/6596 Digital Microscopy Quality Assurance 3D Visualization of Surface Structures One of the main features of a digital microscope is the speed and ease with which it enables surface models to be created of macroscopic and microscopic structures. In a qualitative evaluation, these provide a better understanding and a more detailed documentation of the specimen. In addition, quantification of the surface provides valuable information about the composition of the surface and its wear. Which specimens are suitable for use with a Leica digital microscope, and what are the limitations of the method used? https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/3d-visualization-of-surface-structures/ Wed, 19 Sep 2012 22:00:00 +0000 Daniel Goeggel, Georg Schlaffer https://www.leica-microsystems.com/6417 Image Processing for Widefield Microscopy Fluorescence microscopy is a modern and steadily evolving tool to bring light to current cell biological questions. With the help of fluorescent proteins or dyes it is possible to make discrete cellular components visible in a highly specific manner. A prerequisite for these kinds of investigations is a powerful fluorescence microscope. One special aim is the three-dimensional illustration of a structure to get an impression of full plasticity. This poses a certain problem for the experimenter using a classical light microscope. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/getting-sharper-3d-images-of-thick-biological-specimens-with-widefield-microscopy/ Wed, 04 Jul 2012 22:00:00 +0000 Dr. Christoph Greb https://www.leica-microsystems.com/15671 Light Sheet Microscopy Quantitative Imaging in Cell Biology: Light Sheet Microscopy This chapter introduces the concept of light sheet microscopy along with practical advice on how to design and build such an instrument. Selective plane illumination microscopy is presented as an alternative to confocal microscopy due to several superior features such as high-speed full-frame acquisition, minimal phototoxicity, and multiview sample rotation. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/quantitative-imaging-in-cell-biology-light-sheet-microscopy/ Sun, 20 Nov 2011 13:30:00 +0000 https://www.leica-microsystems.com/11027 EM Sample Preparation Neuroscience Focussed Ion Beam Milling and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Brain Tissue This protocol describes how biological samples, like brain tissue, can be imaged in three dimensions using the focussed ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM). The samples are fixed with aldehydes, heavy metal stained using osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate. They are then dehydrated with alcohol and infiltrated with resin, which is then hardened. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/focussed-ion-beam-milling-and-scanning-electron-microscopy-of-brain-tissue/ Wed, 06 Jul 2011 16:17:00 +0000 https://www.leica-microsystems.com/15669 Light Sheet Microscopy Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy - A Review Light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) functions as a non-destructive microtome and microscope that uses a plane of light to optically section and view tissues with subcellular resolution. This method is well suited for imaging deep within transparent tissues or within whole organisms, and because tissues are exposed to only a thin plane of light, specimen photobleaching and phototoxicity are minimized compared to wide-field fluorescence, confocal, or multiphoton microscopy. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/light-sheet-fluorescence-microscopy-a-review/ Sun, 20 Feb 2011 12:47:00 +0000 https://www.leica-microsystems.com/5350 Stereo Microscopy Quality Assurance FusionOptics – Combines high resolution and depth of field for ideal 3D optical Images A study carried out jointly by Leica Microsystems and the Institute of Neuroinformatics at the University of Zurich and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology provided the basis for an innovation in stereomicroscopy: FusionOptics™. The significant performance increase attained by FusionOptics™ is highly valuable for everyday work at the microscope. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/fusionoptics-combines-high-resolution-and-depth-of-field-for-ideal-3d-optical-images/ Thu, 17 Apr 2008 22:00:00 +0000 Daniel Goeggel, Dipl. oec.-troph. Anja Schué, Dr. Daniel Kiper https://www.leica-microsystems.com/6771 Multiphoton Microscopy Confocal Microscopy Multi-photon Excitation Microscopy Advanced microscopical techique for life science: multiphoton microscopy. Multi-photon excitation (MPE) microscopy plays a growing role among microscopical techniques utilized for studying biological matter. In conjunction with confocal microscopy it can be considered the imaging workhorse of life science laboratories. Its roots can be found in a fundamental work written by Maria Goeppert Mayer more than 70 years ago. Nowadays, 2PE and MPE microscopes are expected to increase their impact in areas such biotechnology, neurobiology, embryology, tissue engineering, materials science where imaging can be coupled to the possibility of using the microscopes in an active way, too. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/multi-photon-excitation-microscopy/ Mon, 05 Jun 2006 22:00:00 +0000 Prof. Alberto Diaspro, Paolo Bianchini, Ph.D. Giuseppe Vicidomini, Mario Faretta, Paola Ramoino, Cesare Usai