Leica Science Lab - Tag : Electron Microscope https://www.leica-microsystems.com//science-lab/tag/electron-microscope/ Article tagged with Electron Microscope en-US https://www.leica-microsystems.com/71295 EM Sample Preparation Neuroscience Investigating Synapses in Brain Slices with Enhanced Functional Electron Microscopy A fundamental question of neuroscience is: what is the relationship between structural and functional properties of synapses? Over the last few decades, electrophysiology has shed light on synaptic transmission mechanisms and electron microscopy (EM) has given insights into synapse morphology. Approaches used to correlate synaptic physiology and ultrastructure date back to the mid-20th century. The goal is to obtain snapshots of synaptic transmission, i.e., capture the dynamic process in electron micrographs. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/investigating-synapses-in-brain-slices-with-enhanced-functional-electron-microscopy/ Mon, 08 Mar 2021 12:38:00 +0000 Dr. Carolina Borges-Merjane, Olena Kim, PhD James DeRose, Dr. Peter Jonas https://www.leica-microsystems.com/25016 Quality Assurance Metallography Fast Visual and Chemical Analysis of Contamination and Underlying Layers Visual and chemical analysis of contamination on materials with a 2-methods-in-1 solution leading to an efficient, more complete analysis workflow is described in this report. A 2-in-1 solution, combining optical microscopy and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), in addition to simultaneous visual and chemical inspection, can be used to quickly remove contamination and inspect the underlying base material. For inspection of components or parts, such as soldering and leads on printed circuit boards (electronics) or metal panels on vehicles (automotive and transport), understanding the effects of contamination are important. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/fast-visual-and-chemical-analysis-of-contamination-and-underlying-layers-1/ Tue, 08 Dec 2020 22:00:00 +0000 PhD James DeRose, Mike Horz, Dr. Kay Scheffler https://www.leica-microsystems.com/30136 Confocal Microscopy Fluorescence Microscopy Super-Resolution CLEM TIRF Microscopy Widefield Microscopy Live-Cell Imaging Laser Microdissection Microscopy in Virology The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, causing the Covid-19 disease effects our world in all aspects. Research to find immunization and treatment methods, in other words to fight this virus, gained highest priority in 2020. Microscopes play a significant role in this kind of research. To understand the underlaying principles of receptor binding, genome release, replication, assembly, and virus budding, as well as the response of our immune system, different methodologies and microscopes can be used. This article summarizes why microscopy is an important tool in virology and infection biology and gives examples for different microscopy technologies and their applications in these research fields. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/microscopy-in-virology/ Mon, 13 Jul 2020 12:13:00 +0000 Dr. Christoph Greb https://www.leica-microsystems.com/29779 Metallography Quality Assurance Top Issues Related to Standards for Rating Non-Metallic Inclusions in Steel Supplying components and products made of steel to users worldwide can require that a single batch be compliant with multiple steel quality standards. This user demand creates significant challenges for suppliers. The standards specify rigorous methods for rating non-metallic inclusions in steel, as the inclusions have a strong influence on quality. Rating the steel quality helps ensure that products and components meet performance and safety specifications. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/top-issues-related-to-standards-for-rating-non-metallic-inclusions-in-steel/ Fri, 19 Jun 2020 09:58:00 +0000 PhD James DeRose, PhD David R. Barbero, Thomas Locherer https://www.leica-microsystems.com/29928 Quality Assurance Metallography Analyzing non-metallic inclusions in steel Oftentimes we find ourselves caught up in tedious analyses by reticle and comparison chart, time-consuming double-evaluation according to several standards or subjective inspection results with a bias from different users. In this webinar, Dr. Nicol Ecke will talk about the advantages of automated analysis of non-metallic inclusions using LAS X Steel Expert*. Learn how this will help you get the reliable, unbiased and standard-compliant results you are aiming for faster and easier than ever before. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/analyzing-non-metallic-inclusions-in-steel/ Tue, 02 Jun 2020 11:17:00 +0000 https://www.leica-microsystems.com/29922 Metallography Quality Assurance Performing Elemental Analysis down to the Micro Scale If you work in electronic component analysis, you will be familiar with the many challenges posed. Whether you are identifying metallic particles or checking product authenticity, it’s important to get the right information quickly and easily. In this webinar, Dr. Konstantin Kartaschew will explain how to obtain spatially resolved information on the chemical composition of microstructures using the Chemical Micro Analyzer LIBS-System. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/performing-elemental-analysis-down-to-the-micro-scale/ Tue, 02 Jun 2020 10:28:00 +0000 https://www.leica-microsystems.com/29634 EM Sample Preparation CLEM Introduction to Ion Beam Etching with the EM TIC 3X In this article you can learn how to optimize the preparation quality of your samples by using the ion beam etching method with the EM TIC 3X ion beam milling machine. A short introduction of the instrument explains how the flexible setup of the EM TIC 3X gives you the opportunity to prepare samples for various investigation areas. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/introduction-to-ion-beam-etching-with-the-em-tic-3x/ Mon, 11 May 2020 13:15:00 +0000 Corporate Communications https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19946 Metallography Quality Assurance Rate the Quality of Your Steel: Free Webinar and Report This webinar and report describe optimal microscopy solutions for rating steel quality in terms of non-metallic inclusions and reviews the various international and regional standards concerning rigorous quality assessment methods, e.g., EN 10247, ASTM E45, DIN 50602, and ISO 4967. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/rate-the-quality-of-your-steel-free-webinar-and-report/ Tue, 28 Apr 2020 12:19:00 +0000 Dionis Diez, PhD James DeRose, Thomas Locherer https://www.leica-microsystems.com/26877 EM Sample Preparation Neuroscience Ultrastructural Preservation and Improved Visualization of Membranes in Primary Bovine Chromaffin Cells Intracellular dynamic events, such as protein trafficking, recycling, and degradation as well as signal transduction, to name a few, can be studied using live-cell imaging techniques. However, conventional light microscopes have limited resolution which is not sufficient to visualize cellular processes that occur at the nanometer scale in their cellular context. Electron microscopy is widely employed to visualize molecular complexes, cellular organelles, tissues and whole organisms at the ultrastructural level. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/ultrastructural-preservation-and-improved-visualization-of-membranes-in-primary-bovine-chromaffin-cells/ Mon, 21 Oct 2019 13:45:00 +0000 MSc Gianvito Arpino, MD, PhD Ling-Gang Wu, PhD Christopher Bleck https://www.leica-microsystems.com/20212 EM Sample Preparation Metallography Quality Assurance Stereo Microscopy 3-Dimensional Imaging of Macroscopic Defects in Aluminum Alloys The investigation of macroscale defects in aluminum (Al) alloys with a rapid 3-dimensional (3D) imaging approach is described in this report. Aluminum (Al) alloys play an important role in the production of aircraft and vehicles, as well as products in other industries. Defects present in the Al alloy used for the production of aircraft, vehicles, or other products can have a significant effect on their quality, performance, and lifetime. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/3-dimensional-imaging-of-macroscopic-defects-in-aluminum-alloys/ Thu, 17 Oct 2019 07:00:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald, PhD James DeRose https://www.leica-microsystems.com/25022 EM Sample Preparation Bridging Structure and Dynamics at the Nanoscale through Optogenetics and Electrical Stimulation Nanoscale ultrastructural information is typically obtained by means of static imaging of a fixed and processed specimen. However, this is only a snapshot of one moment within a dynamic system in which structures are constantly changing. Exploring specific time points of a dynamic process is therefore a major challenge. Exploring a process at the nanoscale through optogenetics or electrical field stimulation in combination with timed millisecond precision vitrification is a promising technology to overcome this challenge. In the first part of a series of application notes the practical considerations of stimulation-assisted vitrification are discussed. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/bridging-structure-and-dynamics-at-the-nanoscale-through-optogenetics-and-electrical-stimulation/ Mon, 20 May 2019 22:00:00 +0000 Dr. Andres Kaech, PhD Frédéric Leroux https://www.leica-microsystems.com/24715 EM Sample Preparation Superior Ultrastructural Preservation and Structural Contrast in Drosophila Tissue Optimal structural preservation of tissue can only be obtained by high pressure freezing. However, preparing the samples in optimal conditions is challenging. This article explains in detail how to dissect, high pressure freeze and freeze substitute Droshophila tissue sample to obtain high structural integrity for subsequent electron microscopic analysis. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/superior-ultrastructural-preservation-and-structural-contrast-in-drosophila-tissue/ Sun, 03 Mar 2019 23:00:00 +0000 PhD Zulfeqhar Syed, PhD Christopher Bleck https://www.leica-microsystems.com/24579 EM Sample Preparation Quick 3D imaging of alloy defects Aluminum (Al) alloys play an important role in the production of aircraft and vehicles, as well as products in other industries. Defects present in the Al alloy used for the production of aircraft, vehicles, or other products can have a significant effect on their quality, performance, and lifetime. Characterization of Al alloys in 3D can lead to a better understanding of defect formation and how to minimize or eliminate it. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/quick-3d-imaging-of-alloy-defects/ Thu, 13 Dec 2018 23:00:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/24565 EM Sample Preparation Expanding the Limits of Electron Microscopy Sample Preparation Capturing the intricate changes in fine structure or in cell dynamics with conventional cryo solutions can be challenging sometimes. Leica Microsystems has developed a new cryo platform, the Leica EM ICE, to help expand the current limits of cryofixation. Watch this free webinar and learn how the Leica EM ICE combines speed, reliability and flexibility to facilitate research in various scientific fields. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/expanding-the-limits-of-electron-microscopy-sample-preparation/ Thu, 06 Dec 2018 23:00:00 +0000 PhD Frédéric Leroux https://www.leica-microsystems.com/20642 EM Sample Preparation High Resolution Array Tomography with Automated Serial Sectioning The optimization of high resolution, 3-dimensional (3D), sub-cellular structure analysis with array tomography using an automated serial sectioning solution, achieving a high section density on the carrier substrate, is described in this report. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/high-resolution-array-tomography-with-automated-serial-sectioning/ Sun, 14 Oct 2018 22:00:00 +0000 Robert Ranner, PhD James DeRose https://www.leica-microsystems.com/20352 EM Sample Preparation Macroscale to Nanoscale Pore Analysis of Shale and Carbonate Rocks Physical porosity in rocks, like shale and carbonate, has a large effect on the their storage capacity. The pore geometries also affect their permeability. Imaging the visible pore space provides insights into the physical pore space, pore geometries, and the associated mineral and organic matter phases relevant for storage and transport. For example, organic-matter porosity is an important property of mature organic-rich shales providing storage capacity for liquids and gases, like hydrocarbons. Imaging the microstructure is the only technique which delivers data giving direct insight into the organic matter porosity. However, imaging porosity in fine-grained shale as well as carbonate rocks in a representative way at high resolution is challenging. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/macroscale-to-nanoscale-pore-analysis-of-shale-and-carbonate-rocks/ Tue, 04 Sep 2018 22:00:00 +0000 PhD Jop Klaver, PhD Joyce Schmatz, MSc Mingze Jiang, PhD James DeRose https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19763 Metallography Quality Assurance Forensics See the Structure with Microscopy - Know the Composition with Laser Spectroscopy The advantages of a 2-in-1 materials analysis solution combining optical microscopy and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for simultaneous visual and chemical inspection are described in this report. The basic principles of the 2-in-1 solution and a comparison between it and other common materials analysis methods, such scanning electron microscopy (SEM), are explained to demonstrate how a rapid, efficient workflow is achieved. A 2-in-1 analysis solution can reduce significantly the cost and time for obtaining material image and composition data. Such data are instrumental in assuring quality and reliability to make confident decisions quickly during production, quality control, failure analysis, and research and development in industries and fields, such as automotive and metallurgy. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/see-the-structure-with-microscopy-know-the-composition-with-laser-spectroscopy/ Mon, 11 Jun 2018 13:39:00 +0000 PhD James DeRose, Dr. Kay Scheffler https://www.leica-microsystems.com/20117 Metallography Leica is MAD about LIBS When analyzing material for cleanliness testing, users normally just want a simple way to know whether the particle under scrutiny is normal debris or something more risky. Users can now “LIBS” it to acquire rapidly the composition and then move onto the next manufacturing step. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/leica-is-mad-about-libs/ Sun, 22 Apr 2018 22:00:00 +0000 Mike Tjepkema, PhD James DeRose https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19756 EM Sample Preparation Practical Applications of Broad Ion Beam Milling Mechanical polishing can be time consuming and frustrating. It can also introduce unwanted artifacts when preparing cross-sectioned samples for electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) or light microscope investigation. In contrast, ion beam milling can eliminate undesirable artifacts that will hamper your analysis and interpretation. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/practical-applications-of-broad-ion-beam-milling/ Thu, 14 Sep 2017 07:50:00 +0000 https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19755 EM Sample Preparation Revealing Cellular Dynamics with Millisecond Precision What if you can dissect the cellular dynamics with millisecond precision? What if you can unravel the morphological transformation of a neuron millisecond by millisecond using electron microscopy? https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/revealing-cellular-dynamics-with-millisecond-precision/ Wed, 13 Sep 2017 07:50:00 +0000 PhD Shigeki Watanabe, PhD Frédéric Leroux https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19607 EM Sample Preparation Interview with Dr. Shigeki Watanabe on Research in Synaptic Membrane Dynamics Dr. Shigeki Watanabe, principle investigator of the department of Cell Biology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, held a workshop in Zürich, Switzerland on methods to study synaptic dynamics with millisecond precision. In collaboration with Dr. Andres Käch from the University of Zurich all workshop attendees enjoyed presentations and hands-on sessions on the EM ICE by Leica Microsystems with Light and Electrical Stimulation, revealing the latest developments in brain research. During this workshop Dr. Bernd Sägmüller from Leica Microsystems had the chance for an interview with Dr. Watanabe. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/interview-with-dr-shigeki-watanabe-on-research-in-synaptic-membrane-dynamics/ Thu, 06 Jul 2017 23:00:00 +0000 Dr. Bernd Sägmüller, PhD Shigeki Watanabe https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18094 EM Sample Preparation Micro-CT of Insect Larva Protocol Species: red blood worm (midge larva) Critical point drying of midge larvae with subsequent X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to reconstruct the inner anatomy. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/micro-ct-of-insect-larva-protocol/ Tue, 14 Mar 2017 07:14:00 +0000 PhD Elisabeth Lipke, PhD Peter Michalik https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18221 EM Sample Preparation Contrast Enhancement of Polycrystalline Metals - Sample Preparation for SEM Application Note - Ion milling is a perfect alternative for chemical etching, especially for polycrystalline metals, such as copper. Ion milling can be used to increase the contrast of the grain structure and their interfaces. In contrast to chemical etching the milling process is clean, safe and easy to operate. Ion energy and milling time depend on the milling rate of the metal. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/contrast-enhancement-of-polycrystalline-metals-sample-preparation-for-sem/ Wed, 01 Feb 2017 10:33:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18156 EM Sample Preparation Cross Sectioning of Cadmiumsulphide (CdS) for Cathodoluminescence Cathodoluminescence can be used to achieve spectra and high resolution images of impurity and structural defects in semicondoctors, minerals and insulating materials. This application note explains how to prepare a perfect sample surface for carhodoluminescence and how to use ion beam slope cutting to prepare the sample surface free of any preparation artefacts. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cross-sectioning-of-cadmiumsulphide-cds-for-cathodoluminescence/ Tue, 24 Jan 2017 18:12:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18207 EM Sample Preparation Picea abies (L.) KARST - Sample Preparation for TEM Application Note for Leica EM AMW - Plants (5-years old) were grown in pots filled with soil and kept in greenhouse conditions. Five weeks before harvesting the plants were transferred into growth chambers and cultivated at a temperature of 20°C during daytime and 12°C overnight. The relative humidity was set at 60% and the photoactive radiation was 500 μmol m-2 s-1 during daytime. Sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed in order to develop a standard protocol that would reduce sample preparation time for TEM-investigations. Therefore the overall and fine structure of leaf cells prepared with the Leica EM AMW were compared with leaf cells that were prepared with a conventional fixation protocol at room temperature. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/picea-abies-l-karst-sample-preparation-for-tem/ Mon, 23 Jan 2017 19:24:00 +0000 Prof. Bernd Zechmann, Prof. Günther Zellnig https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18196 EM Sample Preparation Cross Sectioning of Copper for Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) Application Note for Leica EM TIC 3X - Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) is a surface technique creating diffraction patterns (Kikuchi-bands). It can be used for crystal orientation mapping, defect studies, phase identification, grain boundary studies and morphological studies. The information depth is just a few nm, therefore good sample preparation is very important to avoid damages. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cross-sectioning-of-copper-for-electron-backscattered-diffraction-ebsd/ Thu, 19 Jan 2017 16:37:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18247 EM Sample Preparation Porous Ceramics - Sample Preparation for SEM Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - Ceramic membrane filters with pore sizes down to a few nanometres must be investigated in cross-section with regard to the structure of the pores. The smallest pores are of special interest. In most cases, conventional grinding methods cannot be used for such problems, as the pore structure would be distorted. This applies in particular to the pores in the nanometre range. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/porous-ceramics-sample-preparation-for-sem/ Tue, 17 Jan 2017 07:32:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18319 EM Sample Preparation Maple (Acer saccharum) Leaves - High Pressure Freezing and Freeze Substitution for TEM Application Note for Leica EM HPM100 - Leaves were immersed in hexadecene and placed under a gentle (0.3 bar) vacuum for 10 minutes to evacuate the internal air spaces. The leaves were then trimmed to fit the carriers and placed in the 200 μm side of a 6 mm Type A specimen carrier. Free space was filled with additional hexadecene after which a 6 mm Type B specimen carrier was placed on top with the flat side down. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/maple-acer-saccharum-leaves-high-pressure-freezing-and-freeze-substitution-for-tem/ Mon, 16 Jan 2017 17:08:00 +0000 Dr. Kim Rensing https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18249 EM Sample Preparation Removal of Surface Layers - Sample Preparation for SEM and TEM Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - Sometimes it is necessary to remove surface layers to gain access to the real surface structure. That can be a native oxide, or layers coming from the preparation process itself, like re-deposition. Depending on the layers thickness and the energy used for the cleaning process, it takes between a few seconds and half an hour. The energy depends on the milling rate of the material. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/removal-of-surface-layers-sample-preparation-for-sem-and-tem/ Wed, 11 Jan 2017 10:10:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18354 EM Sample Preparation Cross Section of Solar Cells Application Note for Leica EM TIC020, Leica EM TIC 3X - Cross section of a complete solar cell. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cross-section-of-solar-cells/ Fri, 23 Dec 2016 06:47:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18362 EM Sample Preparation Cross Sectioning of a Multilayer System - Preparation of a Perfect Sample Surface for EBSD Application Note for Leica EM TIC 3X - Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) is a surface technique creating a diffraction pattern (Kikuchi-bands). It can be used for crystal orientation mapping, defect studies, phase identification, grain boundary studies and morphology studies. The information depth is just a few nm. Therefore good sample preparation is very important to avoid any damage. This is very difficult in case of multilayer system with big differences in hardness. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cross-sectioning-of-a-multilayer-system-preparation-of-a-perfect-sample-surface-for-ebsd/ Thu, 22 Dec 2016 20:48:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18317 EM Sample Preparation High-Pressure Freezing and Freeze Substitution of Hep-2 Cells Infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae Application Note for Leica EM HPM100 - Hep-2 cells infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae were cultured on carbon-coated 6 mm Sapphire discs. Cells were high-pressure frozen in an EM HPM100 using the 6 mm CLEM middle plate with following setup: Sapphire disc with cells, spacer 200 μm, bare Sapphire disc, 2 spacers 200 μm. Ethanol was used as a synchronization fluid to transfer pressure at room temperature prior to cooling. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/high-pressure-freezing-and-freeze-substitution-of-hep-2-cells-infected-with-chlamydia-pneumoniae/ Tue, 20 Dec 2016 11:03:00 +0000 Dr. Andres Kaech https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18243 EM Sample Preparation Multilayer Systems with Widely Different Sputter Rates - Sample Preparation for TEM Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - The multi-layer system to be prepared in cross-section consists of a Si substrate, a TiN layer with a thickness of a few nm and a 500 nm W layer. All these components have extreme differences in their hardness, their atomic weight and in their sputter rates. A preparation of this kind of samples with sample rotation would lead to a wall overlying the area of the layers. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/multilayer-systems-with-widely-different-sputter-rates-sample-preparation-for-tem/ Fri, 16 Dec 2016 16:57:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18225 EM Sample Preparation In-Containing Compound Semiconductors - Sample Preparation for TEM Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - Previous studies showed that surface accumulation of In occurs when InP was milled in a conventional way with Ar ions. The consequence is In islands on the sample surface. This leads to low quality of TEM samples. To remove these islands, reactive ion milling with iodine ions (RIBE / CAIBE) can be used. This method has the disadvantage of polluting the ion guns and the vacuum system of the ion milling device and leads to chemical reactions with the sample material. To avoid these problems we prepared these samples very gently with low energy Ar ions. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/in-containing-compound-semiconductors-sample-preparation-for-tem/ Mon, 12 Dec 2016 10:13:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19003 EM Sample Preparation Carbon Coating for Polymeric Materials Application Note fo Leica EM ACE600 - A solid understanding of polymer property-structure relationships is critical to improve and shorten development routes to new products. A direct way to determine correlations between structure and mechanical properties is provided by electron microscopy. Electron microscopy techniques have an important advantage over other methods, as they can provide local information at high spatial resolution. However, a major problem with polymers is their inherent lack of contrast. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/carbon-coating-for-polymeric-materials/ Mon, 05 Dec 2016 09:22:00 +0000 PhD Frédéric Leroux https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18983 EM Sample Preparation High-Resolution Carbon Coating: How much Carbon is too much? Application Note for Leica EM ACE600 - Carbon support films are routinely used for high resolution TEM. Thickness is one of the main criteria to assess its usefulness for a particular experiment. Within that respect graphene (oxide) layers are frequently used. However, charge dissipation and mechanical stability towards high probe currents and high voltages, including long term acquisition protocols are equally important. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/high-resolution-carbon-coating-how-much-carbon-is-too-much/ Wed, 23 Nov 2016 11:56:00 +0000 PhD Frédéric Leroux https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18976 EM Sample Preparation Each Atom Counts: Protect Your Samples Prior to FIB Processing Application Note for Leica EM ACE600 - Focused ion beam (FIB) technology has become an indispensable tool for site-specific TEM sample preparation. It allows to extract electron transparent specimens with nanometer precision using a focused Ga+ ion beam. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/each-atom-counts-protect-your-samples-prior-to-fib-processing/ Wed, 23 Nov 2016 11:43:00 +0000 PhD Frédéric Leroux https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18312 EM Sample Preparation Commercially Available Hand Creams - Sample Preparation for Cryo-SEM Application Note for Leica EM HPM100 - Hand creams having different water contents were applied into the 100 μm cavities of two 3 mm type A sample carriers which were then closed cream sides inwards. The sample assembly was high pressure frozen with a Leica EM HPM100 and moved to a cooled Leica EM VCT100 loading station. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/commercially-available-hand-creams-sample-preparation-for-cryo-sem/ Fri, 18 Nov 2016 17:22:00 +0000 Dr. Kim Rensing https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18255 EM Sample Preparation "Shallow Trench Isolation" Structures - Sample Preparation for TEM Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - The cross-sectional preparation of structured semiconductor materials requires a very thorough mechanical pre-preparation. In doing this, it must be ensured that the structure of interest should be located as close to the centre of the sample as possible. As the sample will be ion milled from both sides, a specific preparation of the structure is necessary in most cases, which means that you must thin these structures from both sides. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/shallow-trench-isolation-structures-sample-preparation-for-tem/ Fri, 18 Nov 2016 16:50:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18110 EM Sample Preparation Tobacco Leaf - Critical Point Drying Protocol for SEM Application Note for Leica EM CPD300 - Critical point drying of tobacco leafs with subsequent platinum coating and SEM analysis. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/tobacco-leaf-critical-point-drying-protocol-for-sem/ Fri, 18 Nov 2016 16:21:00 +0000 Dr. Martin W. Goldberg, M.Sc. Christine Richardson https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18245 EM Sample Preparation Paper Samples - Sample Preparation for SEM Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - A coated paper sample has been prepared with ion beam slope cutting in order to test the procedure with regard to its applicability. With the use of ion beam slope cutting a cross section of paper could be prepared. On the basis of this sample processing, it was possible to show the largely unaffected original structure of the thermally-sensitive paper in the scanning electron microscope. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/paper-samples-sample-preparation-for-sem/ Wed, 16 Nov 2016 14:01:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18241 EM Sample Preparation Metal Films and Sheets - Sample Preparation for TEM Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - Most metal films already have a thickness that requires no further mechanical pre-preparation. Frequently, however, they are also domed, which can lead to undefined milling angles. This is a disadvantage, particularly for films that contain inclusions, and that therefore mostly require very flat milling angles. Metal sheets are thicker than 100 µm. Mechanical pre-preparation is necessary to obtain an acceptable initial thickness and a good surface quality for ion milling. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/metal-films-and-sheets-sample-preparation-for-tem/ Wed, 16 Nov 2016 13:32:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18106 EM Sample Preparation Nematode E. dianae - Critical Point Drying Protocol for SEM Application Note for Leica EM CPD300 - Critical point drying of nematode Eubostrichus dianae to detect the ectosymbiotic bacteria layer with subsequent gold coating ans SEM analysis. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/nematode-e-dianae-critical-point-drying-protocol-for-sem/ Wed, 16 Nov 2016 11:05:00 +0000 Mag. Nikolaus Leisch https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18940 EM Sample Preparation Visualization of Membrane Dynamics with Millisecond Temporal Resolution Application Note for Leica EM ICE, Leica EM AFS2 - Electrical stimulation of neurons combined with high-pressure freezing allows physiological activation of synaptic activity and precise control over the time frame of the induced synaptic activity. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/visualization-of-membrane-dynamics-with-millisecond-temporal-resolution/ Mon, 07 Nov 2016 10:53:00 +0000 PhD Shigeki Watanabe https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18235 EM Sample Preparation Contrast Enhancement of Polished Cross Sections of Semiconductor Structures - Sample Preparation for SEM Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - The surfaces of polished cross sections often show fine scratches and residues of the removed material or of the abrasive material. The artefacts are strongly material-dependent, and are mostly only detectable at higher resolutions in the scanning electron microscope. A further problem arises from the fact that the ground section mostly only has low contrast, i.e., in the structures of the semiconductor materials are very difficult to discern. With the use of ion beam milling, the ground sections of semiconductor structures can be "contrasted". https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/contrast-enhancement-of-polished-cross-sections-of-semiconductor-structures-sample-preparation-for-sem/ Fri, 28 Oct 2016 12:08:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18142 EM Sample Preparation Wall Cress Pod Protocol - Critical Point Drying of Arabidopsis thaliana for SEM Application Note for Leica EM CPD300 - Critical point drying of wall cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) pod with subsequent gold coating and SEM analysis. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/wall-cress-pod-protocol-critical-point-drying-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-for-sem/ Tue, 25 Oct 2016 08:00:00 +0000 Dr. Chen LiYu https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18257 EM Sample Preparation Surface Modification of ZnAg Sample - Sample Preparation for SEM Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - By means of cleaning, polishing and contrast enhancement a soft ZnAg sample should be prepared to obtain information concerning the grain structure and interfaces of the sample. The sample is contaminated after mechanical polishing. There are still some scratches on the surface. Grain structure is almost invisible. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/surface-modification-of-znag-sample-sample-preparation-for-sem/ Mon, 17 Oct 2016 08:16:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18364 EM Sample Preparation Cross Sectioning of Ni/Cu on Steel for EBSD Application Note for Leica EM TIC 3X - Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) is a surface technique creating a diffraction pattern (Kikuchi-bands). It can be used for crystal orientation mapping, defect studies, phase identification, grain boundary studies and morphology studies. The information depth is just a few nm. Therefore a good sample preparation is very important. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cross-sectioning-of-nicu-on-steel-for-ebsd/ Fri, 14 Oct 2016 09:45:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18096 EM Sample Preparation Bacteria Protocol - Critical Point Drying of E. coli for SEM Application Note for Leica EM CPD300 - Critical point drying of E. coli with subsequent platinum / palladium coating and SEM analysis. Sample was inserted into a filter disc (Pore size: 16 - 40 μm) and placed into the filter discs and porous pots holder. Cultivate fungi and bacteria on agar containing growth medium for 3 days. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/bacteria-protocol-critical-point-drying-of-e-coli-for-sem/ Thu, 13 Oct 2016 10:04:00 +0000 Dr. W. H. Mueller https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18178 EM Sample Preparation Cross Sectioning of Painted Concrete Application Note for Leica EM TIC 3X - Ion beam slope cutting is a method that can achieve flat cuts of material combinations consisting of hard and soft materials. Here, cross sectioning of painted concrete is describes in order to visualize the interface between paint and concrete. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cross-sectioning-of-painted-concrete/ Mon, 10 Oct 2016 20:39:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18104 EM Sample Preparation Clawed Frog Nuclear Envelope Protocol Application Note for Leica EM CPD300 - Critical point drying of nuclear pores from clawed frog oocytes with subsequent chromium coating and SEM analysis. Silicon chips containing the samples were placed into the filter discs and porous pots holder. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/clawed-frog-nuclear-envelope-protocol/ Thu, 06 Oct 2016 16:00:00 +0000 Dr. Martin W. Goldberg, M.Sc. Christine Richardson https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18092 EM Sample Preparation Micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) of Insect Brain Protocol Application Note for Leica EM CPD300 - Critical point drying of the blow fly with subsequent X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to detect neuroanatomical features. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/micro-computed-tomography-micro-ct-of-insect-brain-protocol/ Thu, 06 Oct 2016 14:41:00 +0000 PhD Elisabeth Lipke, PhD Peter Michalik https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18259 EM Sample Preparation Thin Metal Foils with Coatings - Sample Preparation for SEM Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - Thin foils are mostly unstable because of their thickness of a few microns. This makes it difficult to do slope cutting without any protection of the sample. A common realisation to protect the sample surface is by sticking a cover glass on top of the sample. Another issue is cutting the foils before ion milling. The sample edge should be flat and sharp without any broken areas. A razor blade is mostly the best solution. A protected sample can salso be sawed with a wire saw. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/thin-metal-foils-with-coatings-sample-preparation-for-sem/ Wed, 05 Oct 2016 07:16:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18818 EM Sample Preparation Ultra-thin Carbon Support Films for Improved STEM-EELS Analysis of Nanoparticles Application Note for Leica EM ACE600 - Recent developments in aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes as well as further improvements in monochromaters and spectrometers have pushed the attainable energy resolution for Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to 100 meV and beyond. STEM-EELS of individual nanomaterials can be challenging due the necessity of a support film. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/ultra-thin-carbon-support-films-for-improved-stem-eels-analysis-of-nanoparticles/ Wed, 21 Sep 2016 11:27:00 +0000 PhD Frédéric Leroux https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18820 EM Sample Preparation Ways to Reveal More from your Samples: Ultra-Thin Carbon Films Application Note for Leica EM ACE600 - Much of the battle involved in obtaining good transmission electron microscopy data is in the specimen preparation itself. Even though some nanomaterials are already electron transparent (e.g. nanoparticles and proteins) and often do not require further thinning procedures, they need to be dispersed onto thin support films. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/ways-to-reveal-more-from-your-samples-ultra-thin-carbon-films/ Wed, 21 Sep 2016 11:23:00 +0000 PhD Frédéric Leroux, Jan de Weert https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18192 EM Sample Preparation Cross Sectioning of a Superconductive Wire Application Note for Leica EM TIC 3X - Purpose: The shape of the wire is difficult for ion beam slope cutting. Goal: Cross sectional preparation to see the structure of the wire. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cross-sectioning-of-a-superconductive-wire/ Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:41:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18149 EM Sample Preparation Structural Study of C. elegans Application Note for Leica EM ICE, Leica EM AFS2 - Wildtype L4 stage C. elegans (N2 strain) were placed in the 100 μm deep side of Lecithin-coated (see detailed protocol*) type A 3 mm Cu/Au carriers (Leica) with extracellular filler containing 1% (w/v) Agarose type IX and 2% (w/v) Bovine Serum Albumin in bacteria medium (see preparation details**) and sandwiched with the flat side of Lecithin-coated type B 3 mm Cu/Au carriers (Leica). Samples were frozen in a high-pressure freezer (Leica EM ICE). https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/structural-study-of-c-elegans/ Fri, 16 Sep 2016 08:15:00 +0000 E. G. van Donselaar, Dr. Martin Harterink, Drs. C. E. M. Vocking, Dr. Rob Mesman https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18344 EM Sample Preparation Cross Section of an Aluminium Sample for Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) Application Note for Leica EM TIC020, Leica EM TIC 3X - Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) is for example used to examine the crystallographic orientation of material. The sample preparation for such samples is sometimes very tricky as the depth of information is just few nm (~20nm or less). That means the sample surface must be flat and free of preparation artefacts. Mechanical polishing leads mostly to sample surfaces damages. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cross-section-of-an-aluminium-sample-for-electron-backscattered-diffraction-ebsd/ Thu, 15 Sep 2016 07:54:00 +0000 Robert Ranner https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18301 EM Sample Preparation Freeze-Fracture Replication of Pyramidal Cells Application Note for Leica EM HPM100 - Frozen samples (90 μm thick slices frozen by HPM100) were inserted into a double replica table and then fractured into two pieces at –130°C (after insertion of the tissue into BAF 060 the samples should be left in the chamber for 20 min to reach the –130°C). https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/freeze-fracture-replication-of-pyramidal-cells/ Thu, 08 Sep 2016 16:23:00 +0000 Akos Kulik https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18239 EM Sample Preparation Ion Beam Polishing of Sample Surfaces - Sample Preparation for SEM Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - Ion milling can be used to reduce the roughness of sample surfaces. Small angles less than 6° with respect to the sample surface are necessary. The high voltage depends on the material to be prepared. The reason for the levelling effect is the different milling angle of flat and rough surface areas. The milling rate is lower for small angles. The rough surface area will be faster milled. Ion polishing is often the final step of sample preparation. The prerequisite is a perfect mechanical prepreparation as samples with deep surface scratches cannot be ion polished. Soft materials usually have a smeared sample surface after mechanical polishing. It is necessary to remove this smeared material before ion polishing. Otherwise the above mentioned polishing effect does not work. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/ion-beam-polishing-of-sample-surfaces-sample-preparation-for-sem/ Tue, 06 Sep 2016 11:11:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18215 EM Sample Preparation Cleaning of Smeared Sample Surfaces - Sample Preparation for SEM Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - Mechanical polishing of soft materials or hard / soft material combinations is tricky. The mechanical polishing process leads very often to smearing of the soft material. The smeared material covers the surface and fills small pores or holes. Grain structures, interfaces and other structural details can be masked. An additional ion milling step with milling angles between 10° C and 15° C with respect to the sample surface can remove or reduce the contamination. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cleaning-of-smeared-sample-surfaces-sample-preparation-for-sem/ Fri, 02 Sep 2016 06:49:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18090 EM Sample Preparation Micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) of Book Scorpion Musculature Application Note for Leica EM CPD300 - Critical point drying of book scorpion with subsequent X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to detect anatomical features with special regard to the musculature. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/micro-computed-tomography-micro-ct-of-book-scorpion-musculature/ Thu, 01 Sep 2016 08:39:00 +0000 PhD Elisabeth Lipke, PhD Peter Michalik https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18146 EM Sample Preparation Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons Application Note for Leica EM ICE - Rat Hippocampal neurons, cultured on 50 μm thick Aclar (Aclar embedding film, EMS) for 19 days, were frozen in the 100 μm deep side of lecithin coated (detailed protocol Appendix I) type A 3 mm Cu/Au carriers (Leica) and sandwiched with the flat side of lecithin coated type B 3 mm Cu/Au carriers (Leica). No additional filler was used, only cell culture medium with the addition of Hepes buffer pH 7.2 to a final concentration of 25 mM. Samples were frozen in a high-pressure freezer (Leica EM ICE). https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cultured-rat-hippocampal-neurons/ Mon, 29 Aug 2016 07:12:00 +0000 E. G. van Donselaar, Dr. Martin Harterink, Drs. C. E. M. Vocking, Dr. W. H. Mueller, Prof. Dr. C. C. Hoogenraad https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18000 EM Sample Preparation Epoxy Resin Embedding of Animal and Human Tissues for Pathological Diagnosis and Research Application Note for Leica EM AMW - The tissues were fixed in the modified Karnovsky fixative generally by immersion overnight (at minimum 4h at room temperature). Then pieces of approx. 1mm3 were cut with a sharp razor blade and processed for embedding in the Leica EM AMW Microwave Tissue Processor. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/epoxy-resin-embedding-of-animal-and-human-tissues-for-pathological-diagnosis-and-research/ Fri, 19 Aug 2016 08:34:00 +0000 Dr. Josef A. Schroeder https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18209 EM Sample Preparation Ceramics - Sample Preparation for TEM Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - Ceramic samples are mostly very brittle, and are therefore very difficult to thin mechanically to a low starting thickness for ion beam milling. The ion beam milling of insulators often leads to static charging of the surface of the sample. This, in turn, reduces the sputter rate. When using the Ti standard holder (standard TEM holder), however, sufficient secondary electrons are created by the ion beam also falling on the sample holder to largely compensate for the static charging. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/ceramics-sample-preparation-for-tem/ Mon, 15 Aug 2016 18:46:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18295 EM Sample Preparation Cryo-Electron Microscopy of Vitreous Sections (CEMOVIS) of Yeast Application Note for Leica EM HPM100 - The sections are of yeast frozen with a Leica HPM100 high pressure freezer in the copper tube system, the cell paste was mixed with a pH 6.5 MES/dextran buffer so that a final MES concentration of 50mM and a dextran concentration of 20% was achieved. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cryo-electron-microscopy-of-vitreous-sections-cemovis-of-yeast/ Fri, 12 Aug 2016 14:51:00 +0000 Dr. Jonathan O'Driscoll, Dr. Daniel Kofi Clare, Prof. Helen Saibil https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18144 EM Sample Preparation Wrinkled Giant Hyssop Leaf Protocol Application Note for Leica EM CPD300 - Critical point drying of wrinkled giant hyssop leaf with subsequent gold coating and SEM analysis. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/wrinkled-giant-hyssop-leaf-protocol/ Thu, 11 Aug 2016 17:04:00 +0000 Dr. Guo JianSheng https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18100 EM Sample Preparation Black Mould Protocol Application Note for Leica EM CPD300 - Critical point drying of Black mould (Aspergilus niger) with subsequent platinum / palladium coating and SEM analysis to detect conidiospores. Sample was inserted into a filter disc (Pore size: 16 - 40 μm) and placed into the filter discs and porous pots holder. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/black-mould-protocol/ Tue, 09 Aug 2016 12:01:00 +0000 Dr. W. H. Mueller https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18151 EM Sample Preparation Cross Sectioning of Alumina Application Note for Leica EM TIC 3X - Alumina is very difficult to handle and almost impossible to prepare with conventional methods. Ion beam slope cutting is a method that can achieve cross sections of material combinations consisting of hard and soft components. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cross-sectioning-of-alumina/ Mon, 08 Aug 2016 07:48:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/17998 EM Sample Preparation Arabidopsis thaliana(L.) Accession Col Application Note for Leica EM AMW - Plants were grown in growth chambers under defined conditions. After stratification for 4 days at 4°C seeds were grown in pots with soil with 9/15 hours day/night photoperiod. Day and night temperatures were 22°C and 18°C, respectively, the relative humidity was 60% and the plants were kept at 100% relative soil water content. Light intensity varied between 110 and 140 μmol m-2 s-1. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/arabidopsis-thalianal-accession-col/ Mon, 01 Aug 2016 13:03:00 +0000 Prof. Bernd Zechmann, Prof. Günther Zellnig https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18190 EM Sample Preparation Cross Sectioning of CuSn Connector of a Solar Cell Application Note for Leica EM TIC 3X - Ion beam slope cutting is a method that can achieve flat cross sections of soft materials or material combinations consisting of hard and soft components. The CuSn connector is very soft. Mechanical polishing leads to smearing. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cross-sectioning-of-cusn-connector-of-a-solar-cell/ Fri, 29 Jul 2016 11:56:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/17987 EM Sample Preparation Immuno - Electron Microscopy of High Pressure Frozen and Freeze Substituted Mouse Heart Application Note for Leica EM AFS2 - Mouse heart tissue from wild-type (WT) and αT -catenin KO (KO) mice was excised, immersed in 20% (w/v) BSA and frozen immediately in a high-pressure freezer Leica EM PACT. Freeze subs­titution was carried out using a Leica EM AFS in dry acetone containing 2% ddH2O and 0.1% glutaraldehyde over a 4-days period. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/immuno-electron-microscopy-of-high-pressure-frozen-and-freeze-substituted-mouse-heart/ Wed, 27 Jul 2016 15:35:00 +0000 Riet de Rycke https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18049 EM Sample Preparation Neuroscience Symmetric Synapse - Clathrin Coated Endocytosis Pit in the Postsynaptic Dendrite Application Note for Leica EM ICE - WT hippocampal neurons were plated at a density of 80,000 cells/cm2 on 6 mm sapphire disks for 14 days. Sample were frozen using a high-pressure freezer (Leica EM ICE) under a pressure of 2100bar by mounting it into a sandwich support with extracellular solution containing 15% of Ficoll 400, to assess ice crystal damage. The Cryo-fixation was achieved within milliseconds allowing simultaneous immobilization of all macromolecular components. After freezing, sam­ple was transferred into cryovials containing 1% glutaraldehyde, 1% osmium tetroxide, 1% milliQwater in anhydrous acetone and processed in an automated freeze-substitution device (Leica EM AFS2). https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/symmetric-synapse-clathrin-coated-endocytosis-pit-in-the-postsynaptic-dendrite/ Wed, 20 Jul 2016 08:56:00 +0000 Dr. Shuwen Chang https://www.leica-microsystems.com/17975 EM Sample Preparation Electron Microscopy of High Pressure Frozen and Freeze Substituted Arabidopsis Thaliana Root Tips Cells Application Note for Leica EM AFS2 - Arabidopsis thaliana roots (mutant PIN1pro:PIN1-GFP;bex5-1) were excised, immersed in 20% (w/v) BSA and frozen immediately in a high-pressure freezer. Freeze substitution was carried out using a Leica EM AFS2. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/electron-microscopy-of-high-pressure-frozen-and-freeze-substituted-arabidopsis-thaliana-root-tips-cells/ Fri, 08 Jul 2016 10:02:00 +0000 Riet de Rycke https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18368 EM Sample Preparation Cross Sectioning of Oil Shale Rock Application Note for Leica TIC 3X - High quality sample preparation of large area to investigate the sample in the SEM. For the mechanical preparation step diamond lapping foils of 9μm subsequently 2μm and finally 0.5μm grain size were used. It took about 1.5 hours. The sample was removed from the stub with a razor blade after TXP processing and fixed onto the holder of the rotary stage of the Leica EM TIC 3X. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cross-sectioning-of-oil-shale-rock/ Tue, 28 Jun 2016 13:04:00 +0000 Robert Ranner https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18284 EM Sample Preparation Cryo-SEM Imaging of Latex Paint Application Note for Leica EM VCT100, Leica EM ACE600 - A thin layer of latex paint was spread on a clean, scored, silicon chip. The sample was immediately plunge frozen in liquid ethane and transferred under LN2 to the Leica EM VCT100 loading station where it was placed in the customized sample holder. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cryo-sem-imaging-of-latex-paint/ Thu, 16 Jun 2016 16:50:00 +0000 Dr. Levi Felts, Dr. Kim Rensing, Chris Frethem https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18184 EM Sample Preparation Cross Sectioning of Rubber (Tire) Application Note for Leica EM TIC 3X - Ion beam slope cutting is a method that can achieve cross sections of soft materials or material combinations consisting of hard and soft components. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/cross-sectioning-of-rubber-tire/ Tue, 14 Jun 2016 10:30:00 +0000 PhD Wolfgang Grünewald https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18086 EM Sample Preparation Water Flea Protocol Application Note for Leica EM CPD300 - Critical point drying of water flea with subsequent gold coating and SEM-Analysis to detect finde surface structures. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/water-flea-protocol/ Tue, 07 Jun 2016 07:06:00 +0000 Mag. Dr. Daniela Gruber https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18079 EM Sample Preparation Human Blood Cells Protocol Application Note for Leica EM CPD300 - Life Science Research. Species: Human (Homo sapiens) Critical point drying of human blood with subsequent platinum / palladium coating and SEM analysis. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/human-blood-cells-protocol/ Tue, 24 May 2016 08:03:00 +0000 Dr. W. H. Mueller https://www.leica-microsystems.com/13642 CLEM EM Sample Preparation Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy – Get Your Free CLEM e-Book for Download The urge to go deeper into the microscopic world has led researchers to combine the versatility of the light microscopy (LM) with the resolution power of the electron microscope (EM) to produce Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM). CLEM’s most significant and powerful characteristic for cell biology research is an ability to study the same cell using two different microscopy platforms. The Essential Knowledge Briefing describes the basics of CLEM and also reviews potential pitfalls and problems as well as tricks for solving them. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/correlative-light-and-electron-microscopy-get-your-free-clem-e-book-for-download/ Thu, 28 May 2015 16:34:00 +0000 Professor Paul Verkade https://www.leica-microsystems.com/10912 EM Sample Preparation Brief Introduction to Contrasting for EM Sample Preparation Since the contrast in the electron microscope depends primarily on the differences in the electron density of the organic molecules in the cell, the efficiency of a stain is determined by the atomic weight of the stain attached to the biological structures. Consequently, the most widely used stains in electron microscopy are the heavy metals uranium and lead. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/brief-introduction-to-contrasting-for-em-sample-preparation/ Wed, 02 Oct 2013 14:33:00 +0000 Dr. Ruwin Pandithage https://www.leica-microsystems.com/10068 EM Sample Preparation Carbon Thickness Evaluation in Electron Microscopy The coating layers applied and used for electron microscopy imaging are commonly controlled and measured by quartz crystals. These crystals oscillate with a certain frequency (around 6 megahertz when new). By measuring the frequency before coating and after coating, the specific weight of the coating material and the geometric position of the quartz, the applied thickness can be calculated. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/carbon-thickness-evaluation-in-electron-microscopy/ Thu, 11 Jul 2013 09:10:00 +0000 Gisela Höflinger https://www.leica-microsystems.com/5734 EM Sample Preparation University of Wollongong Electron Microscopy Centre The University of Wollongong has a diverse range of materials research programs that includes metallurgy for mining, manufacturing, steel making and transport; polymers for solar cells, energy storage and bionic implants; and superconducting and electronic materials for commercialization, energy storage, telecommunications and medical applications. Electron microscopy is an integral part of this research, due to the chemical and structural information that can be provided down to the atomic scale. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/university-of-wollongong-electron-microscopy-centre/ Thu, 17 Jan 2013 23:00:00 +0000 Darren Attard, Tony Romeo https://www.leica-microsystems.com/7972 EM Sample Preparation Brief Introduction to Critical Point Drying One of the uses of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is in the study of surface morphology in biological applications which requires the preservation of the surface details of a specimen. Samples for Electron Microscopy (EM) imaging need to be dried in order to be compatible with the vacuum in the microscope. The presence of water molecules will disturb the vacuum and with it the imaging. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/brief-introduction-to-critical-point-drying/ Mon, 10 Dec 2012 23:00:00 +0000 Dr. Ruwin Pandithage https://www.leica-microsystems.com/7970 CLEM EM Sample Preparation CLEM: Combining the Strengths of Light and Electron Microscopy In recent years light microscopy studies have been dominated by live cell imaging while electron microscopy has been used for high-resolution studies. Latterly, there has been increasing interest in combining these techniques. This combination is called Correlative Light Electron Microscopy (CLEM). Due to the high resolution made possible by electron microscopy, artefacts induced during preparation of a sample can, however, also be clearly seen. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/clem-combining-the-strengths-of-light-and-electron-microscopy/ Mon, 09 Apr 2007 22:00:00 +0000 Professor Paul Verkade