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  • 3-Dimensional Imaging of Macroscopic Defects in Aluminum Alloys

    The investigation of macroscale defects in aluminum (Al) alloys with a rapid 3-dimensional (3D) imaging approach is described in this report. Aluminum (Al) alloys play an important role in the production of aircraft and vehicles, as well as products in other industries. Defects present in the Al…
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  • Rating the Quality of Steel

    This report describes optimal microscopy solutions for rating steel quality in terms of non-metallic inclusions and reviews the various international and regional standards concerning rigorous quality assessment methods, e.g., EN 10247, ASTM E45, DIN 50602, and ISO 4967.
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  • Surface Modification of ZnAg Sample - Sample Preparation for SEM

    Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - By means of cleaning, polishing and contrast enhancement a soft ZnAg sample should be prepared to obtain information concerning the grain structure and interfaces of the sample. The sample is contaminated after mechanical polishing. There are still some…
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  • Cross Sectioning of Ni/Cu on Steel for EBSD

    Application Note for Leica EM TIC 3X - Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) is a surface technique creating a diffraction pattern (Kikuchi-bands). It can be used for crystal orientation mapping, defect studies, phase identification, grain boundary studies and morphology studies. The information…
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  • Ion Beam Polishing of Sample Surfaces - Sample Preparation for SEM

    Application Note for Leica EM RES102 - Ion milling can be used to reduce the roughness of sample surfaces. Small angles less than 6° with respect to the sample surface are necessary. The high voltage depends on the material to be prepared. The reason for the levelling effect is the different milling…
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  • Metallography – an Introduction

    Metallography is the study of the microstructure of all types of metallic alloys. It can be more precisely defined as the scientific discipline of observing and determining the chemical and atomic structure and spatial distribution of the constituents, inclusions or phases in metallic alloys. By…
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  • Metallography with Color and Contrast

    The examination of microstructure morphology plays a decisive role in materials science and failure analysis. There are many possibilities of visualizing the real structures of materials in the light microscope. The image samples shown in this article demonstrate the information potential of some of…
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  • Research for the Optimal Structure

    To see how liquids can be made to flow, without being directly heated or touched, you only have to watch a raw egg explode in a microwave oven. Electromagnetic forces can even melt metal at hotter than 1000 °C. In the Magnetohydrodynamics study group at the Research Centre Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD)…
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