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  • Chloroplast-Mediated Regulation of CO2-Concentrating Mechanism by Ca2+-Binding Protein CAS in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    Application example of HvYolution Super-Resolution - Aquatic photosynthetic organisms, including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, induce a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) to maintain photosynthetic activity in CO2-limiting conditions by sensing environmental CO2 and light availability. In this study, the introduction of an intact CAS gene into H82 cells restored photosynthetic affinity for inorganic carbon, and RNA-seq analyses revealed that CAS could function in maintaining the expression levels of nuclear-encoded CO2-limiting–inducible genes, including the HCO3– transporters high-light activated 3 (HLA3) and low-CO2–inducible gene A (LCIA).
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  • Time Gating of Chloroplast Autofluorescence Allows Clearer Fluorescence Imaging In Planta

    Chloroplast, an organelle facilitating photosynthesis, exhibits strong autofluorescence, which is an undesired background signal that restricts imaging experiments with exogenous fluorophore in plants. In this study, the autofluorescence was characterized in planta under confocal laser microscopy, and it was found that the time-gated imaging technique completely eliminates the autofluorescence. As a demonstration of the technique, a clearer signal of fluorescent protein-tagged phototropin, a blue-light photoreceptor localized at the chloroplast periphery, was visualized in planta.
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  • Fully Automated Tracking of Chloroplasts in Elodea Leaf Cells from 4D Image Data

    Fully automated tracking of moving 3D structures in living cells represents several challenges that are typical to the analysis of biological image data. Taking 4D image data from chloroplasts in living Elodea leaf cells as an example we demonstrate new approaches to meet these challenges. Chloroplasts are surprisingly dynamic organelles: They move extensively throughout cells, they regularly split or fuse and their shape changes constantly.
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