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  • FCS - Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    FCS is a fluorescence-based measurement method. Fluorescent molecules passing through a strongly focused, fixed laser beam are excited for fluorescence emission. After passing a confocal pinhole, the emitted photons are registered using very sensitive detectors.
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  • FLCS - Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy

    Essentially, FCS can be performed with a continuous-wave laser. Using pulsed lasers allows even more sophisticated analysis possibilities, such as time-gated FCS or Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS). Both methods make use of the additional information obtained by the simultaneous measurement of the fluorescence lifetime.
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  • FCCS - Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy

    FCCS (Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy) can be measured using the Leica TCS SP8 FCS system. Similar to FCS , it analyzes fluorescence intensity fluctuations derived from a small observation volume.
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  • Individual Macromolecule Motion in a Crowded Living Cell

    There is solid evidence for analyzing fluorescence correlation and dual color fluorescence crosscorrelation spectroscopy data ( FCS and dual color FCCS) in cellular applications by equations based on anomalous subdiffusion. Using equations based on normal diffusion causes artifacts of the fitted biological system response parameters and of the interpretations of the FCS and dual color FCCS data in the crowded environment of living cells. Equations based on normal diffusion are not valid in living cells. The original article embraces the status of the experimental situation and touches obstacles that still hinder the applications of single molecules in the cellular environment.
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