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  • Brief Introduction to Ultramicrotomy

    The usual thicknesses for transmission electron microscopic examinations range between 20 nm and 150 nm. Ultramicrotomy is a fast and clean method of producing ultra-thin sections of biological samples as well as polymers, rubber, ductile and even hard and brittle materials. A key advantage of ultramicrotomy is the size and homogeneity of the electron-transparent area of specimens prepared with this technique.
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  • Brief Introduction to Glass Knifemaking for Electron and Light Microscope Applications

    Glass knives are used in an ultramicrotome to cut ultrathin slices of samples for electron and light microscope applications. For resin and for cryo sections (Tokuyasu samples) the knife edge must be extremely sharp, strong and stable. An important requirement for breaking glass knives of superior quality is the quality of the glass strips. Glass strips are produced from specially selected glass, the thickness and quality of which is precisely controlled. Only strict tolerances ensured by careful quality control allow breaking of two high quality knives from one square.
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  • Focussed Ion Beam Milling and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Brain Tissue

    This protocol describes how biological samples, like brain tissue, can be imaged in three dimensions using the focussed ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM). The samples are fixed with aldehydes, heavy metal stained using osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate. They are then dehydrated with alcohol and infiltrated with resin, which is then hardened.
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