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  • Chloroplast-Mediated Regulation of CO2-Concentrating Mechanism by Ca2+-Binding Protein CAS in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    Application example of HvYolution Super-Resolution - Aquatic photosynthetic organisms, including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, induce a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) to maintain photosynthetic activity in CO2-limiting conditions by sensing environmental CO2 and light availability. In this study, the introduction of an intact CAS gene into H82 cells restored photosynthetic affinity for inorganic carbon, and RNA-seq analyses revealed that CAS could function in maintaining the expression levels of nuclear-encoded CO2-limiting–inducible genes, including the HCO3– transporters high-light activated 3 (HLA3) and low-CO2–inducible gene A (LCIA).
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  • The Bif-1-Dynamin 2 Membrane Fission Machinery Regulates Atg9-Containing Vesicle Generation at the Rab11-Positive Reservoirs

    Application example of HyVolution Super-Resolution - Atg9 is a multispanning transmembrane protein that is required for autophagosome formation. During autophagy, vesicles containing Atg9 are generated through an unknown mechanism and delivered to the autophagosome formation sites. We have previously reported that Atg9-containing membranes undergo continuous tubulation and fission during nutrient starvation in a manner dependent on the curvature-inducing protein Bif-1/Sh3glb1. Here, we identify Dynamin 2 (DNM2) as a Bif-1-interacting protein that mediates the fission of Atg9-containing membranes during autophagy.
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  • Quantitative Analysis of PPT1 Interactome in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    Application example of HyVolution Super-Resolution - Mutations in the CLN1 gene that encodes Palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1) or CLN1, cause Infantile NCL (INCL, MIM#256730). PPT1 removes long fatty acid chains such as palmitate from modified cysteine residues of proteins. The data shown here result from isolated protein complexes from PPT1-expressing SH-SY5Y stable cells that were subjected to single step affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (AP-MS). Prior to the MS analysis, we utilised a modified filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) protocol. Based on label free quantitative analysis of the data by SAINT, 23 PPT1 interacting partners (IP) were identified.
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  • Methods to Calibrate and Scale Axial Distances in Confocal Microscopy as a Function of Refractive Index

    Application example of HyVolution Super-Resolution - Accurate distance measurement in 3D confocal microscopy is important for quantitative analysis, volume visualization and image restoration. However, axial distances can be distorted by both the point spread function (PSF) and by a refractive-index mismatch between the sample and immersion liquid, which are difficult to separate. Additionally, accurate calibration of the axial distances in confocal microscopy remains cumbersome, although several high-end methods exist. In this paper we present two methods to calibrate axial distances in 3D confocal microscopy that are both accurate and easily implemented.
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  • Evaluation of Zebrafish as a Model to Study the Pathogenesis of the Opportunistic Pathogen Cronobacter Turicensis

    Application example of HyVolution Super-Resolution - Bacteria belonging to the genus Cronobacter spp. have been recognized as causative agents of life-threatening systemic infections, primarily in premature, low-birth weight and/or immune-compromised neonates. Knowledge remains scarce regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of disease development. In this study, we evaluated the use of a zebrafish model to study the pathogenesis of Cronobacter turicensis LMG 23827T, a clinical isolate responsible for two fatal sepsis cases in neonates.
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  • Discovery of Novel Peptides Targeting Pro-Atherogenic Endothelium in Disturbed Flow Regions -Targeted siRNA Delivery to Pro-Atherogenic Endothelium in vivo

    Application example of HyVolution Super-Resolution - Atherosclerosis occurs preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed blood flow. Targeting these pro-atherogenic regions is a potential anti-atherogenic therapeutic approach, but it has been extremely challenging. Here, using in vivo phage display approach and the partial carotid ligation model of flow-induced atherosclerosis in mouse, we identified novel peptides that specifically bind to endothelial cells (ECs) exposed to disturbed flow condition in pro-atherogenic regions.
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  • P53- and Mevalonate Pathway–Driven Malignancies Require Arf6 for Metastasis and Drug Resistance

    Application example of HvYolution Super-Resolution - Drug resistance, metastasis, and a mesenchymal transcriptional program are central features of aggressive breast tumors. The GTPase Arf6, often overexpressed in tumors, is critical to promote epithelial–mesenchymal transition and invasiveness. The metabolic mevalonate pathway (MVP) is associated with tumor invasiveness and known to prenylate proteins, but which prenylated proteins are critical for MVP-driven cancers is unknown. We show here that MVP requires the Arf6-dependent mesenchymal program.
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  • Super-Resolution Mapping of Neuronal Circuitry With an Index-Optimized Clearing Agent

    Super-resolution imaging deep inside tissues has been challenging, as it is extremely sensitive to light scattering and spherical aberrations. Here, we report an optimized optical clearing agent for high-resolution fluorescence imaging (SeeDB2). SeeDB2 matches the refractive indices of fixed tissues to that of immersion oil (1.518), thus minimizing both light scattering and spherical aberrations.
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  • HyVolution – Super-Resolution Imaging with a Confocal Microscope

    Since the invention of the microscope, there has been continual discussion about the possibility of showing more detailed features of specimens as compared to just magnifying them. In this article we describe the HyVolution concept and how the combination of confocal multiparameter fluorescence imaging at the confocal super-resolution regime with psf-based real deconvolution allows high-speed multicolor imaging with a resolution down to 140 nm.
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  • HyVolution – the Smart Path to Confocal Super-Resolution

    Super-resolution refers to any device or method that can resolve better than the classical Abbe limit. Apart from infinite super-resolution techniques such as STED (stimulated emission depletion) and SMLM (single-molecule localization methods) that can theoretically resolve to any detail, there are also methods for limited super-resolution. Here we present HyVolution by Leica, which merges optical super-resolution and computational super-resolution. The optical part is provided by confocal microscopy, and the computational part by deconvolution. Lateral resolution of 140 nm is demonstrated. HyVolution offers multiple fluorescence recording in truly simultaneous mode.
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  • Super-Resolution – On a Heuristic Point of View About the Resolution of a Light Microscope

    Since super-resolution has become one of the most favored methods in biomedical research, the term has become increasingly popular. Still, there is much of confusion about what is super-resolution and what is resolution at all. Here, the classical view of microscopic resolution is discussed and some techniques that resolve better than classical are briefly introduced. The picture on the right shows the intensity distribution of an image of two points whose distance is just the Rayleigh criterion (false color coding).
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