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  • Real Time Observation of Neutrophil White Blood Cell Recruitment to Bacterial Infection In Vivo

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emerging vertebrate model organism to study infection. The transparent larva comprises a fully functional innate immune system and enables live imaging of fluorescent immune cells in transgenic animals. Zebrafish infection models have been developed for both the human bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri and the natural fish bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium marinum. Importantly, whilst S. flexneri causes acute infection and is typically used as an inflammatory paradigm, M. marinum causes a chronic disease similar to tuberculosis in humans. Here, we use real time fluorescence microscopy to image transgenic zebrafish larvae with neutrophils (granulocyte white blood cells) expressing the green fluorescent protein eGFP.
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  • Dengue Virus Infection of the Aedes aegypti Salivary Gland and Chemosensory Apparatus Induces Genes that Modulate Infection and Blood-Feeding Behavior

    The female Aedes aegypti salivary gland plays a pivotal role in bloodmeal acquisition and reproduction, and thereby dengue virus (DENV) transmission. It produces numerous immune factors, as well as immune-modulatory, vasodilatory, and anti-coagulant molecules that facilitate blood-feeding. To assess the impact of DENV infection on salivary gland physiology and function, we performed a comparative genome-wide microarray analysis of the naïve and DENV infection-responsive A. aegypti salivary gland transcriptomes.
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  • Correlative Cryo-Fluorescence and Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy as a Straightforward Tool to Study Host-Pathogen Interactions

    Correlative light and electron microscopy is an imaging technique that enables identification and targeting of fluorescently tagged structures with subsequent imaging at near-to-nanometer resolution. We established a novel correlative cryo-fluorescence microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy workflow, which enables imaging of the studied object of interest very close to its natural state, devoid of artifacts caused for instance by slow chemical fixation. This system was tested by investigating the interaction of the zoonotic bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi with two mammalian cell lines of neural origin in order to broaden our knowledge about the cell-association mechanisms that precedes the entry of the bacteria into the cell.
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  • Evaluation of Zebrafish as a Model to Study the Pathogenesis of the Opportunistic Pathogen Cronobacter Turicensis

    Application example of HyVolution Super-Resolution - Bacteria belonging to the genus Cronobacter spp. have been recognized as causative agents of life-threatening systemic infections, primarily in premature, low-birth weight and/or immune-compromised neonates. Knowledge remains scarce regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of disease development. In this study, we evaluated the use of a zebrafish model to study the pathogenesis of Cronobacter turicensis LMG 23827T, a clinical isolate responsible for two fatal sepsis cases in neonates.
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  • Imaging of Host Cell-bacteria Interactions using Correlative Microscopy under Cryo-conditions

    Pathogenic bacteria have developed intriguing strategies to establish and promote infections in their respective hosts. Most bacterial pathogens initiate infectious diseases by adhering to host cells surface. Knowledge of the interplay between the pathogenic organism and the host cells can provide fundamental new insight into the underlying mechanisms of the infectious process and therefore of the disease. Various microscopy techniques have proven to be critical tools to study these events.
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  • Cryo-electron Microscopy of Tubular Arrays of HIV-1 Gag Resolves Structures Essential for Immature Virus Assembly

    HIV-1 undergoes a two-step assembly process. First, an immature noninfectious particle is assembled, which leaves the infected cell. Second, the structural protein, Gag, is cleaved in the virus by the viral protease, and this leads to formation of the infectious virus. We have assembled part of HIV-1 Gag in vitro to form immature virus-like tubular protein arrays, and have solved a subnanometer-resolution structure of these arrays by using cryo-EM and tomography. This structure reveals interactions of the C-terminal capsid domain of Gag that are critical for HIV-1 assembly.
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  • Infection of Zebrafish Embryos with Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens

    Transparent zebrafish embryos have proved useful model hosts to visualize and functionally study interactions between innate immune cells and intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella typhimurium and Mycobacterium marinum. Micro-injection of bacteria and multi-color fluorescence imaging are essential techniques involved in the application of zebrafish embryo infection models.
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  • Webinar: Unleashing the Powers of Super-Resolution Microscopy to Solve Immunological Challenges

    In this webinar, Christian Eggeling and Dongfang Liu will discuss their experiences using STED super-resolution microscopy to explore, uncover and define the intricate machinery involved in immunological pathways and infectious disorders.
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  • Safe High Pressure Freezing of Infectious Microorganisms

    Especially in core EM-facilities one is confronted with material (microorganisms and cells) which are infectious. It is a must to follow the safety rules according to the National regulations. However even when safe laboratories are available it is very convenient to know that the applied high pressure freezing system is in itself safe.
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