Leica Science Lab - Topic : Basics in Microscopy https://www.leica-microsystems.com//science-lab/topics/basics-in-microscopy/?tx_leicaacademy_pi2%5Baction%5D=listPagesForTopic&tx_leicaacademy_pi2%5Bcontroller%5D=Topic&tx_leicaacademy_pi2%5Btopic%5D=2&cHash=1880faff54a46e38849170a767332ca5 Article tagged with Basics in Microscopy en-US https://www.leica-microsystems.com/44443 Basics in Microscopy Perform Microscopy Analysis for Pathology Ergonomically and Efficiently The main performance features of a microscope which are critical for rapid, ergonomic, and precise microscopic analysis of pathology specimens are described in this article. Microscopic analysis of patient specimens in pathology is a key step for providing diagnoses. As pathologist can spend long hours at the microscope analyzing specimens, achieving accurate and efficient diagnoses requires an optimal microscope setup. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/perform-microscopy-analysis-for-pathology-ergonomically-and-efficiently/ Mon, 16 Nov 2020 08:16:00 +0000 PhD James DeRose https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19036 Basics in Microscopy Live-Cell Imaging Fluorescence Microscopy Widefield Microscopy Factors to Consider When Selecting a Research Microscope An optical microscope is often one of the central devices in a life-science research lab. It can be used for various applications which shed light on many scientific questions. Thereby the configuration and features of the microscope are crucial for its application coverage, ranging from brightfield through fluorescence microscopy to live-cell imaging. This article provides a brief overview of the relevant microscope features and wraps up the key questions one should consider when selecting a research microscope. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/factors-to-consider-when-selecting-a-research-microscope/ Thu, 24 Sep 2020 10:10:00 +0000 Dr. Christoph Greb https://www.leica-microsystems.com/5098 Stereo Microscopy Basics in Microscopy Quality Assurance Key Factors to Consider When Selecting a Stereo Microscope Stereo microscopes are often nicknamed the “workhorse” of the lab or production site. Users spend many hours looking through the eyepieces inspecting, observing, documenting, or dissecting samples. Careful assessment of the relevant applications for which the stereo microscope is needed is key to long-lasting, satisfactory use. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/factors-to-consider-when-selecting-a-stereo-microscope/ Thu, 24 Sep 2020 07:00:00 +0000 B.Sc. Elisabeth Ippel, PhD James DeRose, Daniel Goeggel https://www.leica-microsystems.com/28031 Basics in Microscopy Fluorescence Microscopy Widefield Microscopy Getting Sharper 3D Images of Thick Biological Specimens with Widefield Microscopy Widefield fluorescence microscopy is often used to visualize structures in life science specimens and obtain useful information. With the use of fluorescent proteins or dyes, discrete specimen components are marked in a highly specific manner. To fully understand a structure, visualizing it in 3 dimensions can be necessary, but certain challenges are faced when doing so with microscopy. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/getting-sharper-3d-images-of-thick-biological-specimens-with-widefield-microscopy/ Tue, 18 Aug 2020 08:00:00 +0000 Dr. Christoph Greb, PhD James DeRose, Dr. Rolf T. Borlinghaus https://www.leica-microsystems.com/28354 Basics in Microscopy How to Sanitize a Microscope Due to the current coronavirus pandemic, there are a lot of questions regarding decontamination methods of microscopes for safe usage. This informative article summarizes general decontamination methods and recommendations without being meant to replace a scientists’ expertise nor medical or professional advice. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/how-to-sanitize-a-microscope/ Fri, 03 Apr 2020 09:20:00 +0000 Dr. Christoph Greb https://www.leica-microsystems.com/15127 Basics in Microscopy Digital Microscopy Stereo Microscopy What Does 30,000:1 Magnification Really Mean? One important criterion concerning the performance of an optical microscope is magnification. This report will offer digital microscopy users helpful guidelines to determine the useful range of magnification values. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/what-does-300001-magnification-really-mean/ Mon, 25 Jun 2018 22:00:00 +0000 PhD James DeRose, MSc Michael Doppler https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19773 Fluorescence Microscopy Basics in Microscopy The Fundamentals and History of Fluorescence and Quantum Dots At some point in your research and science career, you will no doubt come across fluorescence microscopy. This ubiquitous technique has transformed the way in which microscopists can image, tag and trace anything from whole organisms to single proteins and beyond. In this article, we will examine what is meant by "fluorescence", the history and basic physics behind its definition, the discovery and application of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and a look at the rapidly expanding field of fluorescent probes including Quantum Dots. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/the-fundamentals-and-history-of-fluorescence-and-quantum-dots/ Wed, 15 Nov 2017 16:44:00 +0000 PhD Martin Wilson https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19684 Basics in Microscopy Eyepieces, Objectives and Optical Aberrations For most microscope applications, there are generally only two sets of optics which are adjusted by the user, namely, the objectives and the eyepieces. Of course, this is assuming that the microscope is already corrected for Koehler Illumination during which the condenser and diaphragms are adjusted. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/eyepieces-objectives-and-optical-aberrations/ Mon, 28 Aug 2017 07:36:00 +0000 PhD Martin Wilson https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19639 Basics in Microscopy Koehler Illumination: A Brief History and a Practical Set Up in Five Easy Steps The technique of Koehler Illumination is one of the most important and fundamental techniques in achieving optimum imaging in any given light microscope set-up. Although it should be routinely used as part of setting up a microscope, many microscopists are put off by thinking that the correct set-up is complex and time consuming and it is therefore still not widely practised. By getting to know the two main components of the microscope which are adjusted in this technique (the diaphragms and sub-stage condenser) in reality, correct set-up should only take a matter of minutes. A correctly aligned microscope can result in greatly improved images of uniform contrast and illumination as well as higher resolution and more detail. In this article, we will look at the history of the technique in addition to how to adjust the components in five easy steps. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/koehler-illumination-a-brief-history-and-a-practical-set-up-in-five-easy-steps/ Thu, 17 Aug 2017 07:07:00 +0000 PhD Martin Wilson https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19673 Basics in Microscopy Immersion Objectives: Using Oil, Glycerol, or Water to Overcome some of the Limits of Resolution To examine specimens at high magnifications using the microscope, there are a number of factors which need to be taken into consideration. These include resolution, numerical aperture (NA), the working distance of objectives and the refractive index of the medium through which the image is collected by the front lens of an objective. In this article, we will briefly look at how using an immersion medium between the coverslip and the objective front lens helps to increase the NA and resolution. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/immersion-objectives-using-oil-glycerol-or-water-to-overcome-some-of-the-limits-of-resolution/ Wed, 09 Aug 2017 12:07:00 +0000 PhD Martin Wilson https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19622 Basics in Microscopy Live-Cell Imaging Graphene-Based Microbots for Toxic Heavy Metal Removal and Recovery from Water Heavy metal contamination in water is a serious risk to the public health and other life forms on earth. Current research in nanotechnology is developing new nanosystems and nanomaterials for the fast and efficient removal of pollutants and heavy metals from water. Here, we report graphene oxide-based microbots (GOx-microbots) as active self-propelled systems for the capture, transfer, and removal of a heavy metal (i.e., lead) and its subsequent recovery for recycling purposes. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/graphene-based-microbots-for-toxic-heavy-metal-removal-and-recovery-from-water/ Thu, 03 Aug 2017 10:27:00 +0000 https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19605 Basics in Microscopy Collecting Light: The Importance of Numerical Aperture in Microscopy Numerical aperture (abbreviated as ‘NA’) is an important consideration when trying to distinguish detail in a specimen viewed down the microscope. NA is a number without units and is related to the angles of light which are collected by a lens. In calculating NA (see below), the refractive index of a medium is also taken into account and by matching the refractive index of a slide or cell culture container with an immersion medium, then more of the detail of a specimen will be resolved. The way in which light behaves when travelling from one medium to another is also related to NA (and termed ‘refraction’). This article also covers a brief history of refraction and how this concept is a limiting factor in achieving high NA. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/collecting-light-the-importance-of-numerical-aperture-in-microscopy/ Wed, 12 Jul 2017 07:46:00 +0000 PhD Martin Wilson https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19548 Widefield Microscopy Basics in Microscopy Introduction to Widefield Microscopy One of the most basic microscopy techniques is known as ‘Widefield Microscopy’. It is fundamentally any technique in which the entire specimen of interest is exposed to the light source with the resulting image being viewed either by the observer or a camera (which can also be attached to a computer monitor). https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/introduction-to-widefield-microscopy/ Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:31:00 +0000 PhD Martin Wilson https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19234 Basics in Microscopy Optimization of the Interplay of Optical Components for Aberration free Microscopy Optical microscopes are used to magnify objects which are otherwise invisible for the human eye. For this purpose high quality optics is necessary to achieve appropriate resolution. However, besides intentional effects, all optical components have also unwanted intrinsic influence on light, resulting in aberrations. This article highlights optical elements and their physical parameters involved in this process. Based on this, it gives a historical overview of philosophies about how to cope with aberration reduction. Seeing the microscope as a whole system turned out to be beneficial, leading to the harmonization of its constituents for optimal microscopic results. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/optimization-of-the-interplay-of-optical-components-for-aberration-free-microscopy/ Wed, 31 May 2017 08:58:00 +0000 Karl-Heinz Schade, Peter Euteneuer, Dipl. Phys. Arnold Müller-Rentz https://www.leica-microsystems.com/19260 Basics in Microscopy Fluorescence Microscopy Milestones in Incident Light Fluorescence Microscopy Since the middle of the last century, fluorescence microscopy developed into a bio scientific tool with one of the biggest impacts on our understanding of life. Watching cells and proteins with the help of fluorescence molecules is a standard method in nearly every life science discipline today. This broad application range goes back to the technical work of some researchers who wanted to improve and simplify fluorescence microscopic labor. One person who was involved in that development was the Dutch medic Johann Sebastiaan Ploem. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/milestones-in-incident-light-fluorescence-microscopy/ Mon, 06 Mar 2017 08:39:00 +0000 Dr. Christoph Greb https://www.leica-microsystems.com/18991 Basics in Microscopy Microscope Resolution: Concepts, Factors and Calculation In microscopy, the term ‘resolution’ is used to describe the ability of a microscope to distinguish detail. In other words, this is the minimum distance at which two distinct points of a specimen can still be seen - either by the observer or the microscope camera - as separate entities. The resolution of a microscope is intrinsically linked to the numerical aperture (NA) of the optical components as well as the wavelength of light which is used to examine a specimen. In addition, we have to consider the limit of diffraction which was first described in 1873 by Ernst Abbe. This article covers some of the history behind these concepts as well as explaining each using relatively simple terminology. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/microscope-resolution-concepts-factors-and-calculation/ Fri, 02 Dec 2016 14:09:00 +0000 PhD Martin Wilson https://www.leica-microsystems.com/17472 Basics in Microscopy Widefield Microscopy Definitions of Basic Technical Terms for Digital Microscope Cameras and Image Analysis Most microscopes today are operated with a camera. The characteristics of the camera often decide whether the acquired image will reveal what a researcher wants to see. But when diving into camera terminology, the technical terms can be overwhelming. We have compiled the most important terms with a concise explanation to provide orientation. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/definitions-of-basic-technical-terms-for-digital-microscope-cameras-and-image-analysis/ Tue, 19 Apr 2016 11:39:00 +0000 Claudia Müller, Dr. Christoph Greb, Dr. Karin Schwab https://www.leica-microsystems.com/17636 Widefield Microscopy Basics in Microscopy Infinity Optical Systems “Infinity Optics” refers to the concept of a beam path with parallel rays between the objective and the tube lens of a microscope. Flat optical components can be brought into this “Infinity Space” without influencing image formation, which is critical for the utilization of contrast methods such as DIC or fluorescence. Modern microscopy techniques require the addition of multiple optical instruments, such as light sources or laser devices, into the infinite light path. Different approaches to fulfill this need have emerged and are described here. https://www.leica-microsystems.com/science-lab/infinity-optical-systems/ Fri, 11 Mar 2016 16:28:00 +0000 Dr. Christoph Greb