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Stereomicroscopes offer the great advantage of providing a three dimensional view of the sample. This is vitally important for understanding or inspecting microscopic structures, their spatial extent and nature. Stereomicroscopes are therefore indispensable in a huge number of applications ranging from industrial production, quality control and materials research to forensics, biotechnology, genetics and nearly all areas of biomedical research. Modern stereomicroscopes are based on a modular design, allowing them to be configured for individual applications and tailored to the ergonomic needs of the user.   

  • 3-Dimensional Imaging of Macroscopic Defects in Aluminum Alloys

    The investigation of macroscale defects in aluminum (Al) alloys with a rapid 3-dimensional (3D) imaging approach is described in this report. Aluminum (Al) alloys play an important role in the production of aircraft and vehicles, as well as products in other industries. Defects present in the Al alloy used for the production of aircraft, vehicles, or other products can have a significant effect on their quality, performance, and lifetime.
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  • Real Time Observation of Neutrophil White Blood Cell Recruitment to Bacterial Infection In Vivo

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emerging vertebrate model organism to study infection. The transparent larva comprises a fully functional innate immune system and enables live imaging of fluorescent immune cells in transgenic animals. Zebrafish infection models have been developed for both the human bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri and the natural fish bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium marinum. Importantly, whilst S. flexneri causes acute infection and is typically used as an inflammatory paradigm, M. marinum causes a chronic disease similar to tuberculosis in humans. Here, we use real time fluorescence microscopy to image transgenic zebrafish larvae with neutrophils (granulocyte white blood cells) expressing the green fluorescent protein eGFP.
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  • Coming to Grips with Biological Information Through Flexible Organic Electronics: Developing Bendable and Stretchable Biosensors and Device

    What do you associate with the word sensor? Perhaps technologies delivering automation in factories and other production sites? That may be what comes to mind, but advances in organic electronics are now driving the rapid development of biological sensors that measure physiological signals when in contact with the skin, organs, and other parts of the body.
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  • Work Efficiently in Developmental Biology and Medical Research with Stereo Microscopy: Rodent and Small Animal Surgery

    This report provides information which can help improve the routine work of scientists and technicians performing studies involving surgery on small animals and rodents, i.e. mice, rats, hamsters etc., for developmental biology or medical research. The aim is to help make the work steps efficient and cost-effective, where the employment of microscopes is necessary. It also gives useful hints and details on the various microscopes which can be used in a developmental biology or medical research laboratory where small animal or rodent surgery is exploited.
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  • How to Turn Microscope Workplaces Ergonomic

    Microscopes are tools that affect those who work with them every day. They can be highly demanding for the human body, requiring concentration and a lot of steady activity from many of our muscles. In this interview, Clinton Smith, Senior Product Manager at Leica Microsystems, talks about how to relieve possible tension and strain and how to create ergonomic workplaces to help microscope users work in comfort and how to increase productivity.
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  • Dengue Virus Infection of the Aedes aegypti Salivary Gland and Chemosensory Apparatus Induces Genes that Modulate Infection and Blood-Feeding Behavior

    The female Aedes aegypti salivary gland plays a pivotal role in bloodmeal acquisition and reproduction, and thereby dengue virus (DENV) transmission. It produces numerous immune factors, as well as immune-modulatory, vasodilatory, and anti-coagulant molecules that facilitate blood-feeding. To assess the impact of DENV infection on salivary gland physiology and function, we performed a comparative genome-wide microarray analysis of the naïve and DENV infection-responsive A. aegypti salivary gland transcriptomes.
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  • Work More Efficiently in Developmental Biology With Stereo Microscopy: Zebrafish, Medaka, and Xenopus

    Among the aquatic model organisms used in molecular and developmental biology the most prominent are the zebrafish (genus species: Danio rerio), medaka or japanese rice fish (genus species: Oryzias latipes), and african clawed frog (genus species: Xenopus laevis). This report gives useful information to scientists and technicians which can help improve their daily laboratory work by making the steps of transgenesis, fluorescent screening, and functional imaging more efficient.
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  • Work More Efficiently In Developmental Biology With Stereo Microscopy: Fruit Flies (Drosophila Melanogaster)

    For scientists and technicians working with fruit flies, most often genus Drosophila, this report is intended to give useful information to help improve daily laboratory work by making the steps of fly pushing, fluorescent screening, dissection, and documentation/imaging more efficient. It also details various possibilities for properly equipping or stocking a fly lab.
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  • C. Elegans

    Work Efficiently in Developmental Biology with Stereo and Confocal Microscopy: C. elegans

    For scientists, technicians, and teachers working with the worm C. elegans in the research lab or classroom, this report is intended to give useful information to help improve their daly work. The aim is to make the work steps of worm picking, transgenesis, RNA interference, screening, and functional imaging efficient. It also details the various possibilities for equipping a research worm lab or biology classroom/teaching lab explaining worm methods.
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  • Infection of Zebrafish Embryos with Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens

    Transparent zebrafish embryos have proved useful model hosts to visualize and functionally study interactions between innate immune cells and intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella typhimurium and Mycobacterium marinum. Micro-injection of bacteria and multi-color fluorescence imaging are essential techniques involved in the application of zebrafish embryo infection models.
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  • Mammary gland development

    Investigating the Influence of Hormone Signaling Pathways on Mammary Gland Development and the Onset of Breast Cancer

    Over their entire lifetime, 1 out of 8 women can suffer from breast cancer. The risk of developing breast cancer (mammary carcinogenesis) increases with a woman’s age and is related to her reproductive history. The chance of mammary carcinogenesis is less for women who give birth to a child before the age of 30. However, it is now known that the risk of breast cancer also can depend on the number of times a woman experiences elevated blood serum progesterone levels, in relation to the menstrual cycle, before her first pregnancy.
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  • Color Infidelity: Why Using a Light Source Incorrectly is Cheating on your Data

    There are many influences on color in the imaging process including lighting, optics, sensor, and monitor, and ultimately print. The first, and generally most important, is lighting. There are plenty of options for light sources, Halogen, LED, and arc lamps are among the most popular for microscopes. Each light source has its own advantages and disadvantages and it is up to the user to learn which is best for the sample and application.
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  • What do you Call a Drosophila who Likes to Drink? A Bar Fly!

    The thought of a Drosophoila headed to the local bar for a drink creates a funny joke, but after long hours of sorting flies under a microscope that causes eyestrain or neck pain, you may be the one that wants to head to the local bar for a drink! Unfortunately most users do not know why they experience discomfort when using a stereo microscope.
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  • Illumination (Lighting) Systems for Stereo Microscopes

    This report gives users of stereo microscopes helpful advice when attempting to select optimal illumination or lighting systems for sample observation. The illumination used for microscopic observation has a very important effect on the final image quality. Choosing the illumination to achieve the best results depends upon the type of sample and its features of interest, as well as the application and purpose for microscopic observation. The following information should help microscope users to choose illumination systems that produce the best imaging results.
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  • New Predatory Cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria: Manipulatoridae fam.n.) from the Upper Cretaceous Myanmar Amber

    We describe a new extinct lineage Manipulatoridae (new family) of cockroaches from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber of Myanmar. Manipulator modificaputis gen. et sp. n. is a morphologically unique extinct cockroach that represents the first (of a total of 29 known worldwide) cockroach family reported exclusively from the Myanmar amber.
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  • How to Correct Aberration in Stereo Microscopy by Using the Right Objective Lenses

    For samples/specimens immersed in a liquid or embedded in a polymer, high quality microscopic observation can be hindered as a result of spherical aberration. An objective which can correct for refractive index mismatch allows images with greatly reduced spherical aberration and sharper focus to be obtained.
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  • Intravenous Microinjections of Zebrafish Larvae to Study Acute Kidney Injury

    We describe a technique of microinjecting the aminoglycoside, gentamicin, into 2 days post-fetilization (dpf) zebrafish larvae to induce acute kidney injury (AKI). We also describe a method for whole mount immunohistochemistry, plastic embedding and sectioning of zebrafish larvae to visualize the AKI mediated damage.
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  • Egg-in-Cube: Design and Fabrication of a Novel Artificial Eggshell with Functionalized Surface

    The chick embryo and its circulatory system enclosed by the eggshell has become an important model for biomedical research such as the control of angiogenesis, cancer therapy, and drug delivery test. In this study, a novel artificial eggshell with functionalized surface is proposed, which allows the total amount of oxygen to pass into the egg for the chick embryo culturing and has high observability and accessibility for embryo manipulation.
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  • What Does 30,000:1 Magnification Really Mean?

    One important criterion concerning the performance of an optical microscope is magnification. This report will offer digital microscopy users helpful guidelines to determine the useful range of magnification values.
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  • Bird Park Gives Fascinating Insights into the Variety of Nature

    The Vogel- und Naturschutz-Tierpark Herborn to the north of Frankfurt may be small, but it’s always a great experience for school classes – and not only because it’s home to more than 300 animals of 80 different species, from South African blue cranes and white storks to meerkats and muntjac deer. Another special highlight for schoolchildren is the opportunity to look through a stereomicroscope and gain fascinating insights into nature.
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  • Local and Global Methods of Assessing Thermal Nociception in Drosophila Larvae

    In this article, we demonstrate assays to study thermal nociception in Drosophila larvae. One assay involves spatially-restricted (local) stimulation of thermal nociceptors while the second involves a wholesale (global) activation of most or all such neurons. Together, these techniques allow visualization and quantification of the behavioral functions of Drosophila nociceptive sensory neurons.
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  • Ground Beetles Shed Light on the Environmental History of High Mountain Regions

    With over 35,000 known species, ground beetles – or Carabidae – are among the most speciose groups of animals in the world. Biologist Dr. Joachim Schmidt devotes his entire scientific work to the research of these frequently very small beetles, their ecology, distribution and phylogeny. He is particularly interested in the ground beetles of high mountain regions.
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  • Patch Clamp Recordings from Embryonic Zebrafish Mauthner Cells

    Mauthner cells (M-cells) are large reticulospinal neurons located in the hindbrain of teleost fish. They are key neurons involved in a characteristic behavior known as the C-start or escape response that occurs when the organism perceives a threat. The M-cell has been extensively studied in adult goldfish where it has been shown to receive a wide range of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory signals. We have been examining M-cell activity in embryonic zebrafish in order to study aspects of synaptic development in a vertebrate preparation. In the late 1990s Ali and colleagues developed a preparation for patch clamp recording from M-cells in zebrafish embryos, in which the CNS was largely intact.
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  • Higher Motivation, Longer Concentration – Ergonomics as a Competitive Advantage

    Sensor and identification technology, industrial cameras: when top precision is required, the name Baumer Electric is soon mentioned. The Swiss company designs and produces components for manufacturing facilities all over the world. To be able to guarantee that the finished components are of the highest possible quality, elaborate quality inspections are carried out part for part under the stereo microscope.
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  • Organ Regeneration: An Unlikely Fish Tale

    Spectacular discoveries in cardiac tissue regeneration are rapidly moving researchers closer to the goal of harnessing regenerative techniques to repair the human heart. Only eleven years ago, Dr. Kenneth Poss, Professor of Cell Biology at Duke University and an Early Career Scientist of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, published the first research to clearly visualize an example of cardiac tissue regeneration using fluorescence microscopy.
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  • Stereo microscopes with TripleBeam Technology

    Especially in fluorescence microscopy, excitation light is friend and foe in one. On the one hand, energy-rich excitation via a specific light wavelength of the fluorochrome resulting in a bright positive fluorochrome signal is highly welcome. On the other hand, "noise" caused by reflections of excitation light passing through the surfaces of optical elements needs to be extremely slight to generate a perfect black background. This relation is described as "signal-to-noise ratio", which is highly relevant for differentiating optically between fluorescence positive and negative cells.
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  • Intravital Immunofluorescence for Visualizing the Microcirculatory and Immune Microenvironments in the Mouse Ear Dermis

    Intravital imaging of inflammatory and remodeling processes has been an important area of research and has also motivated the creation of numerous transgenic reporter mouse models that express fluorescent proteins. Our paper (Kilarski, Güç et al. 2013) describes a new in vivo imaging technique, which design was based on innovative concept of using immunostaining for live cells and tissue structures on surgically exposed mouse dermis without causing harmful immunotoxic effect.
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  • Every Clue Counts – Forensics Inconceivable Without Microscopy

    There is no crime without clues. They may be obvious, like a cartridge case at the scene of the crime or clear signs of crowbar damage on a door. But sometimes, clues are microscopically small. Besides the classic fingerprints, perpetrators also leave hairs or fiber traces.
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  • Molecular Developmental Biology: Norwegian Marine Research Scientists Solve the Mysteries of Evolution

    The human nervous system is an infinitely complex network consisting of some 100 billions of neurons. It is the result of many-faceted evolutionary processes spanning millions of years which, like the development of other organ systems, have been little researched so far.
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Useful Links

Communities & Web Sources

www.manubiz.comBuy & Sell Manufacturing Technology Solutions, events, news, case studies and discussion forums for automation professionals"Manufacturing is cool" (The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) Education Foundation network for scientists

bitesizebio.comOnline magazine and community for molecular and cell biology researchers

Journals of open access journals Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education

www.lifescied.orgCBE-Life Sciences Education – an ASCB online journal Journal of Life Science Methods of Journals and Proceedings in Optics and Photonics - peer-reviewed journals on applied research in optics and photonics of Biophotonics, peer-reviewed, open-access, online publication B - the Royal Society's biological research journal Journal for microscopists and features on biomedical microscopy

Organizations / Institutes association for the advancement of technology association for the micro- and nano-electronics industries Society of Mechanical Engineers Society of America Microscopy Society Microscopical Society on microscopy for materials science; University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy American Society of Cell Biology company of biologists

Materials Science on microscopy for materials science; University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy American Ceramic Society (ACerS) for Iron & SteelTechnology (AIST)

www.asminternational.orgASM International (ASM)

www.tms.orgThe Minerals, Metals and Materials Society (TMS)

www.semi.orgSEMI micro- and nano-electronics industries (SEMI)

www.ipc.orgAssociation Connecting Electronic Industries ( and Metallurgical Society of America (MMSA)

www.mrs.orgMaterials Research Society (MRS)

www.sigmaxi.orgThe Scientific Research Society (Sigma Xi)

Manufacturing Quality Society of Quality Ceramic Component Manufacturers (AACCM) Measuring Tool and Manufacturing Association (AMTMA) Manufacturing Practices program Plant Maintenance Resource Center

www.sme.orgThe Society for Manufacturing Engineers’ (SME)

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