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  • Live Cell Imaging

    Shifting perspective from single microscope components to a full working live cell imaging solution, Leica Microsystems integrates microscope, LAS X imaging software, cameras, and dedicated…
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  • Drosophila melanogaster fruitflies perching on the brim of a bowl of sour dough and waiting for their chance. Image Courtesy: Ursula Gönner, Dolgesheim (Germany).
    Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Visualize developmental patterns in Drosophila

    The marvelous complexity of life is perhaps the greatest source of fascination within the biological sciences. Among the most complex subjects within biology is the development of multicellular life.…
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  • Zebrafish Whole Brain imaging with Leica SP8 spectral confocal laser scanning microscope
    Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Zebrafish Brain - Whole Organ Imaging at High Resolution

    Structural information is key when one seeks to understand complex biological systems, and one of the most complex biological structures is the vertebrate central nervous system. To image a complete…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    What is a Spectral Detector (SP Detector)?

    The SP detector from Leica Microsystems denotes a compound detection unit for point scanning microscopes, in particular confocal microscopes. The SP detector splits light into up to 5 spectral bands.…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    What is a Resonant Scanner?

    A resonant scanner is a type of galvanometric mirror scanner that allows fast image acquisition with single-point scanning microscopes (true confocal and multiphoton laser scanning). High acquisition…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    What is a Field-of-View Scanner?

    A field-of-view scanner is an assembly of galvanometric scanning mirrors used in single-point confocal microscopes that offer the correct optical recording of large field sizes. The field-of-view…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    What is a Hybrid Detector (HyD)?

    A HyD is a sensor for detecting light (photons). It is a compound (hybrid) of two technologies: vacuum tubes, like those used in a photomultiplier tube (PMT), and semiconductor microelectronics, like…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Resolved Field Number (RFN)

    The field number (FN) for optical microscopes indicates the field of view (FOV). It corresponds to the area in the intermediate image that is observable through the eyepieces. Although, we cannot…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    What is a Tandem Scanner?

    A Tandem Scanner is an assembly of two different types of scanning together in one system for true confocal point scanning. The Tandem Scanner consists of a three-mirror scanning base with the…
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  • primary murine pre B cells expressing the eCALWY-6 Zn2+
    Science Lab Topic: Quantitative Fluorescence

    Researchers use Functional Imaging to Elucidate the Role of Cellular Zn²⁺ in Human Immunity

    An international consortium of researchers has found a new mutation in a gene harboring a reticulum-to-cytoplasm zinc transporter. The gene is called ZIP7 and it is responsible for the early onset of…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Kaggle Competition for Multi-label Classification of Cell Organelles in Proteome Scale Human Protein Atlas Data

    The Cell Atlas, a part of the Human Protein Atlas, was created by the group of Prof. Emma Lundberg at the SciLifeLab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, in Stockholm, Sweden. Currently, she is a…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    Dynamic Endoplasmic Reticulum

    The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a dynamic, reticular or net-like structure consisting of tubules and cisternae that extend throughout the cell and occupy a large portion of the cytoplasm. In recent…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    MONENSIN SENSITIVITY1 (MON1)/CALCIUM CAFFEINE ZINC SENSITIVITY1 (CCZ1)

    Programmed cell death (PCD)-triggered degradation of plant tapetum is essential for microspore development and pollen coat formation; however, little is known about the cellular mechanism regulating…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Which Sensor is the Best for Confocal Imaging?

    The Hybrid Photodetectors (HyD) are! Why that is the case is explained in this short Science Lab article.
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  • Science Lab Topic: Multiphoton Microscopy

    High-Resolution 3D Imaging of Whole Organ after Clearing

    Zebrafish testis has become a powerful model for reproductive biology of teleostean fishes and other vertebrates and encompasses multiple applications in applied and basic research. Many studies have…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Quantitative Fluorescence

    FCS - Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    FCS is a fluorescence-based measurement method. Fluorescent molecules passing through a strongly focused, fixed laser beam are excited for fluorescence emission. After passing a confocal pinhole, the…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Quantitative Fluorescence

    FLIM FRET - Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    A typical application of FLIM is FLIM-FRET. FRET is a well-established technique to study molecular interactions. It scrutinizes protein binding and estimates intermolecular distances on an Angström…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Quantitative Fluorescence

    FLCS - Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy

    Essentially, FCS can be performed with a continuous-wave laser. Using pulsed lasers allows even more sophisticated analysis possibilities, such as time-gated FCS or Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Quantitative Fluorescence

    FLIM - Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

    The fluorescence lifetime is a measure of how long a fluorophore remains on average in its excited state before returning to the ground state by emitting a fluorescence photon.
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  • Science Lab Topic: Quantitative Fluorescence

    SP FLIM - Spectral Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

    The SP8 FALCON is the ideal tool for spectral FLIM detection. No emission filters in front of the FLIM detectors are necessary. This grants a much higher flexibility to the experimental design.
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  • Science Lab Topic: Quantitative Fluorescence

    FCCS - Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy

    FCCS (Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy) can be measured using the Leica TCS SP8 FCS system. Similar to FCS , it analyzes fluorescence intensity fluctuations derived from a small…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    IT Security Whitepaper

    Security is a primary concern of Leica Microsystems and Leica Microsystems’ customers that employ remote services. Leica Microsystems requires a proven remote service solution that protects against…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Widefield Microscopy

    Expression Analysis of Platelet‐derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha and its Ligands in the Developing Mouse Lung

    Activation of the platelet‐derived growth factor receptor‐α (PDGFR α) signaling pathway is critically important during lung alveogenesis, the process in lung development during which alveoli are…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    Basal Body Positioning and Anchoring in the Multiciliated Cell Paramecium Tetraurelia: Roles of OFD1 and VFL3

    The development of a ciliary axoneme requires the correct docking of the basal body at cytoplasmic vesicles or plasma membrane. In the multiciliated cell Paramecium, three conserved proteins, FOR20,…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    California NanoSystems Institute at UCLA Publications

    A list of the published scientific articles which include work done in the ALMS/MSI Facilities.
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  • Science Lab Topic: White Confocal

    Primary Beam Splitting Devices for Confocal Microscopes

    Current fluorescence microscopy employs incident illumination which requires separation of illumination and emission light. The classical device performing this separation is a color-dependent beam…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Digital Microscopy

    Webinar On-Demand: Quality with Confidence

    From routine quality assurance to advanced 3D analysis of complex surface structures, there is a digital microscope solution to meet almost any request
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  • Science Lab Topic: Neuroscience

    Clap On, Clap Off. Protein On, Protein Off

    Unlike genetic or pharmacological manipulation, light-controlled proteins respond immediately, can be temporally and spatially triggered, are reversible, and are specific to the protein of interest.…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Pinhole Effect in Confocal Microscopes

    When operating a confocal microscope, or when discussing features and parameters of such a device, we inescapably mention the pinhole and its diameter. This short introductory document is meant to…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Basics in Microscopy

    Milestones in Incident Light Fluorescence Microscopy

    Since the middle of the last century, fluorescence microscopy developed into a bio scientific tool with one of the biggest impacts on our understanding of life. Watching cells and proteins with the…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Human NK Cell Development Requires CD56-mediated Motility and Formation of the Developmental Synapse

    While distinct stages of natural killer (NK) cell development have been defined, the molecular interactions that shape human NK cell maturation are poorly understood. Here we define intercellular…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Fluorescence Microscopy

    Testing the Münch Hypothesis of Long Distance Phloem Transport in Plants

    Long distance transport in plants occurs in sieve tubes of the phloem. The pressure flow hypothesis introduced by Ernst Münch in 1930 describes a mechanism of osmotically generated pressure…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    Chloroplast-Mediated Regulation of CO2-Concentrating Mechanism by Ca2+-Binding Protein CAS in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    Application example of HvYolution Super-Resolution - Aquatic photosynthetic organisms, including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, induce a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) to maintain…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    Actin-Dependent Vacuolar Occupancy of the Cell Determines Auxin-Induced Growth Repression

    The cytoskeleton is an early attribute of cellular life, and its main components are composed of conserved proteins. The actin cytoskeleton has a direct impact on the control of cell size in animal…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    The Bif-1-Dynamin 2 Membrane Fission Machinery Regulates Atg9-Containing Vesicle Generation at the Rab11-Positive Reservoirs

    Application example of HyVolution Super-Resolution - Atg9 is a multispanning transmembrane protein that is required for autophagosome formation. During autophagy, vesicles containing Atg9 are…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    Quantitative Analysis of PPT1 Interactome in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    Application example of HyVolution Super-Resolution - Mutations in the CLN1 gene that encodes Palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1) or CLN1, cause Infantile NCL (INCL, MIM#256730). PPT1 removes long…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    Methods to Calibrate and Scale Axial Distances in Confocal Microscopy as a Function of Refractive Index

    Application example of HyVolution Super-Resolution - Accurate distance measurement in 3D confocal microscopy is important for quantitative analysis, volume visualization and image restoration.…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Fluorescence Microscopy

    Multispectral Phloem-Mobile Probes: Properties and Applications

    Using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings, we identified a range of small fluorescent probes that entered the translocation stream and were unloaded at the root tip. These probes had…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    Discovery of Novel Peptides Targeting Pro-Atherogenic Endothelium in Disturbed Flow Regions -Targeted siRNA Delivery to Pro-Atherogenic Endothelium in vivo

    Application example of HyVolution Super-Resolution - Atherosclerosis occurs preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed blood flow. Targeting these pro-atherogenic regions is a potential…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    Visualizing Tropoelastin in a Long-Term Human Elastic Fibre Cell Culture Model

    Elastin is an essential protein found in a variety of tissues where resilience and flexibility are needed, such as the skin and the heart. When aiming to engineer suitable implants, elastic fibres are…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    P53- and Mevalonate Pathway–Driven Malignancies Require Arf6 for Metastasis and Drug Resistance

    Application example of HvYolution Super-Resolution - Drug resistance, metastasis, and a mesenchymal transcriptional program are central features of aggressive breast tumors. The GTPase Arf6, often…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Multiphoton Microscopy

    BABB Clearing and Imaging for High Resolution Confocal Microscopy: Counting and Sizing Kidney Cells in the 21st Century

    Multipohoton microscopy experiment using Leica TCS SP8 MP and Leica 20x/0.95 NA BABB immersion objective. Understanding kidney microanatomy is key to detecting and identifying early events in kidney…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Adeno-associated Viral Vectors do not Efficiently Target Muscle Satellite Cells

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are becoming an important tool for gene therapy of numerous genetic and other disorders. Several recombinant AAV vectors (rAAV) have the ability to transduce…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Fluorescence Microscopy

    Video Talk by Roger Tsien: Fluorescent Protein Indicators

    In this talk, Roger Tsien discusses how fluorescent proteins have been turned into indicators for a wide variety of biological molecules, including pH, ions, redox potential, and signaling molecules…
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  • Science Lab Topic: White Confocal

    Contributions of Microbiome and Mechanical Deformation to Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth and Inflammation in a Human Gut-on-a-Chip

    A human gut-on-a-chip microdevice was used to coculture multiple commensal microbes in contact with living human intestinal epithelial cells for more than a week in vitro and to analyze how gut…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Highly Selective Fluorescent and Colorimetric Probe for Live-cell Monitoring of Sulphide Based on Bioorthogonal Reaction

    H2S is the third endogenously generated gaseous signaling compound and has also been known to involve a variety of physiological processes. To better understand its physiological and pathological…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Label-free in vivo Imaging of Myelinated Axons in Health and Disease with Spectral Confocal Reflectance Microscopy

    We report a new technique for high-resolution in vivo imaging of myelinated axons in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve that requires no fluorescent labeling. This method, based on spectral…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    Two-Photon Excitation STED Microscopy with Time-Gated Detection

    We report on a novel two-photon excitation stimulated emission depletion (2PE-STED) microscope based on time-gated detection. The time-gated detection allows for the effective silencing of the…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    The Bimodally Expressed MicroRNA miR‐142 Gates Exit from Pluripotency

    A stem cell's decision to self‐renew or differentiate is thought to critically depend on signaling cues provided by its environment. It is unclear whether stem cells have the intrinsic capacity to…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Quantitative Fluorescence

    FRAP with TCS SP8 Resonant Scanner

    Fast FRAP experiments need a sufficient number of measurement points for meaningful interpretation and fitting analysis. To study very fast translocational processes, the use of a resonant scanner…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Light Sheet Microscopy

    "The Leica Digital Light Sheet Module – a Clever Example of Thinking Out of the Box"

    Bram van den Broek is a postdoctoral fellow at the Netherlands cancer institute in Amsterdam where he supports the advanced microscopy techniques in the laboratory of Kees Jalink. Working with Leica…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Novel Microscopy-Based Screening Method Reveals Regulators of Contact-Dependent Intercellular Transfer

    Contact-dependent intercellular transfer (codeIT) of cellular constituents can have functional consequences for recipient cells, such as enhanced survival and drug resistance. Here, we present a novel…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Progressive Glucose Stimulation of Islet Beta Cells Reveals a Transition From Segregated to Integrated Modular Functional Connectivity Patterns

    Collective beta cell activity in islets of Langerhans is critical for the supply of insulin within an organism. In order to get a detailed insight into the functional organization of the syncytium, we…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    From Light to Mind: Sensors and Measuring Techniques in Confocal Microscopy

    This article outlines the most important sensors used in confocal microscopy. By confocal microscopy, we mean "True Confocal Scanning", i.e. the technique that illuminates and measures one single…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    A Straightforward Approach for Gated STED-FCS to Investigate Lipid Membrane Dynamics

    Recent years have seen the development of multiple technologies to investigate, with great spatial and temporal resolution, the dynamics of lipids in cellular and model membranes. One of these…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    Cortical Actin Networks Induce Spatio-temporal Confinement of Phospholipids in the Plasma Membrane – A Minimally Invasive Investigation by STED-FCS

    Important discoveries in the last decades have changed our view of the plasma membrane organisation. Specifically, the cortical cytoskeleton has emerged as a key modulator of the lateral diffusion of…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Endogenous Protein Tagging for RESOLFT Super-Resolution Microscopy of Living Human Cells

    Overexpression is a notorious concern in conventional and especially in super-resolution fluorescence light microscopy studies because it may cause numerous artifacts including ectopic sub-cellular…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    iMSRC: Converting a Standard Automated Microscope into an Intelligent Screening Platform

    Microscopy in the context of biomedical research is demanding new tools to automatically detect and capture objects of interest. The few extant packages addressing this need, however, have enjoyed…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Improving Axial Resolution in Confocal Microscopy with New High Refractive Index Mounting Media

    Resolution, high signal intensity and elevated signal to noise ratio (SNR) are key issues for biologists who aim at studying the localisation of biological structures at the cellular and subcellular…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Switching Roles: The Functional Plasticity of Adult Tissue Stem Cells

    Adult organisms have to adapt to survive, and the same is true for their tissues. Rates and types of cell production must be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to meet tissue demands in response to both…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    Detailed Morphological Characterisation of Hendra Virus Infection of Different Cell Types Using Super-Resolution and Conventional Imaging

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a pleomorphic virus belonging to the Paramyxovirus family. Our long-term aim is to understand the process of assembly of HeV virions. As a first step, we sought to determine the…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    Encoding and Decoding Spatio-Temporal Information for Super-Resolution Microscopy

    The challenge of increasing the spatial resolution of an optical microscope beyond the diffraction limit can be reduced to a spectroscopy task by proper manipulation of the molecular states. The…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Fluorescence Microscopy

    How to Prepare Your Specimen for Immunofluorescence Microscopy

    Immunofluorescence (IF) is a powerful method for visualizing intracellular processes, conditions and structures. IF preparations can be analyzed by various microscopy techniques (e.g. CLSM,…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Laser Microdissection

    Customized Patterned Substrates for Highly Versatile Correlative Light-Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) combines the advantages of light and electron microscopy, thus making it possible to follow dynamic events in living cells at nanometre resolution. Various…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Video: High Speed Scanning – With two Scanners in one System

    High speed scanning is necessary to image rapidly changing biological processes. With traditional scanning techniques, imaging speed is limited by the number of fluorophores in a specimen. And, rapid…
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  • Science Lab Topic: EM Sample Preparation

    Influence of Tissue and Plant Species in the Trafficking of a Recombinant Protein in Plant Cells

    The development of recombinant DNA technology has allowed the use of plants for the production of biopharmaceuticals. In contrast to other production platforms, plants are unexpensive, easy to scale…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    "Leica is always flexible and dynamic" - Interview with Audrey Salles, Pasteur Institute, Paris

    Audrey Salles is a specialist for confocal and super-resolution microscopy at Pasteur Institute, Imagopole, PFID, Paris, France. Her research interests are cytokine signaling and skeleton organization…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Neuroscience

    Axon Injury and Regeneration in the Adult Drosophila

    Neural regeneration is a fascinating process with profound impact on human health, such that defining biological and genetic pathways is of interest. Here we describe an in vivo preparation for…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    JC Virus Inclusions in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Scaffolding Promyelocytic Leukemia Nuclear Bodies Grow With Cell Cycle Transition Through an S-to-G2–Like State in Enlarging Oligodendrocyte Nuclei

    In progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, JC virus–infected oligodendroglia display 2 distinct patterns of intranuclear viral inclusions: full inclusions in which progeny virions are present…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    How to Choose the Right Confocal Microscope for Your Lab?

    Confocal microscopy has come a very long way since its invention more than a half-century ago. Today, with novel technology driven by leading imaging companies, it has become the standard for…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Neuroscience

    Video Talk by Karl Deisseroth: Optogenetics

    Optogenetics is a combination of genetics and optics to achieve a gain or loss of function of biochemical events such as action potentials in a particular neuron or tissue. Opsin genes encode proteins…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Deeper Insights in Transparent Animals

    CLARITY clearing derivatives for multiphoton microscopy. Transparent organisms help us to identify spatial arrangements and connections of cells and tissues, especially neuronal circuits can easily…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    ICln: A New Regulator of Non-Erythroid 4.1R Localisation and Function

    To optimise the efficiency of cell machinery, cells can use the same protein (often called a hub protein) to participate in different cell functions by simply changing its target molecules. There are…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Analysis of Autofluorescence in Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils: A New Tool for Early Infection Diagnosis

    Diagnosing bacterial infection (BI) remains a challenge for the attending physician. An ex vivo infection model based on human fixed polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) gives an autofluorescence…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Multiphoton Microscopy

    Clearing Procedures for Deep Tissue Imaging

    Multi-channel multiphoton microscopy with dedicated optics for CLARITY. Why clearing? Curiosity is human nature. And nothing attracts as much curiosity as the inside of living organisms. While in…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Smart Control for Resonant Galvo Scanners

    High time-resolution confocal microscopy (HTRCLSM) requires fast scanning devices. Whereas non-resonant galvo scanners allow full position control, but only at slow speed, resonant scanners allow…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Establishment and Characterization of an Omasal Epithelial Cell Model Derived from Dairy Calves for the Study of Small Peptide Absorption

    The objective of this study was to establish a primary culture of omasal epithelial cells (OECs) derived from dairy calves and to characterize its function in small peptide absorption. Bovine omasal…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Imaging Pheromone Sensing in a Mouse Vomeronasal Acute Tissue Slice Preparation

    In mice, the ability to detect pheromones is principally mediated by the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Here, an acute tissue slice preparation of VNO for performing calcium imaging is described. This…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Fully Automated Tracking of Chloroplasts in Elodea Leaf Cells from 4D Image Data

    Fully automated tracking of moving 3D structures in living cells represents several challenges that are typical to the analysis of biological image data. Taking 4D image data from chloroplasts in…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Genomic Survey, Gene Expression Analysis and Structural Modeling Suggest Diverse Roles of DNA Methyltransferases in Legumes

    DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases), namely Methyltransferase (MET), Chromomethylase…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Neuroscience

    Map the Brain with CLARITY

    Imaging whole brains with CLARITY and multiphoton microscopy. Image a whole brain without sectioning? Investigate neuronal circuits without reconstruction? Perform molecular phenotyping without…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Glucose-Stimulated Calcium Dynamics in Islets of Langerhans in Acute Mouse Pancreas Tissue Slices

    In endocrine cells within islets of Langerhans calcium ions couple cell stimulation to hormone secretion. Since the advent of modern fluorimetry, numerous in vitro studies employing primarily isolated…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Functional Connectivity in Islets of Langerhans from Mouse Pancreas Tissue Slices

    We propose a network representation of electrically coupled beta cells in islets of Langerhans. Beta cells are functionally connected on the basis of correlations between calcium dynamics of…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Evolutionary Morphology: Rostock Scientists Clarify Phylogenetic Relationships within the Most Diverse Taxon, Arthropoda

    With over a million described species arthropods, which include spiders, millipedes, crustaceans and insects, are the most diverse taxon on earth. The total number of species of these segmented…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    The Relationship Between Membrane Potential and Calcium Dynamics in Glucose-Stimulated Beta Cell Syncytium in Acute Mouse Pancreas Tissue Slices

    Oscillatory electrical activity is regarded as a hallmark of the pancreatic beta cell glucose-dependent excitability pattern. Electrophysiologically recorded membrane potential oscillations in beta…
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  • Science Lab Topic: White Confocal

    Acousto Optics in True Confocal Spectral Microscope Systems

    Acousto-optical elements have successfully replaced planar filters in many positions. The white confocal, regarded as the fully spectrally tunable confocal microscope, was not possible without this…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    A Flip of the Mitotic Spindle has Disastrous Consequences for Epithelial Cells

    Constructing a body is like building a house – if you compromise structural integrity, the edifice can collapse. Nowhere is that clearer on a cellular level than in the case of epithelial sheets,…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Laser Microdissection

    From Dynamic Live Cell Imaging to 3D Ultrastructure: Novel Integrated Methods for High Pressure Freezing and Correlative Light-Electron Microscopy

    To correlate dynamic events in adherent cells with both ultrastructural and 3D information, we developed a method for cultured cells that combines confocal time-lapse images of GFP-tagged proteins…
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  • Science Lab Topic: CLEM

    A Precise and Rapid Mapping Protocol for Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy of small invertebrate organisms

    CLEM (correlative live cell and electronmicroscopy) seeks to bridge the data acquired with different imaging strategies, typically between light microscopy and electron microscopy. It has been…
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  • Science Lab Topic: White Confocal

    Spectral Detection – How to Define the Spectral Bands that Collect Probe-specific Emission

    To specifically collect emission from multiple probes, the light is first separated spatially and then passes through a device that defines a spectral band. Classically, this is a common glass-based…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Organ Regeneration: An Unlikely Fish Tale

    Spectacular discoveries in cardiac tissue regeneration are rapidly moving researchers closer to the goal of harnessing regenerative techniques to repair the human heart. Only eleven years ago, Dr.…
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  • Science Lab Topic: White Confocal

    Multiple Microscopy Modes in a Single Sweep with Supercontinuum White Light

    Lasers have been critical to the advancement on confocal microscopy, and the white light laser (WLL) offers particular advantages. Finessing WLL output for bioimaging is a complex task, though, and…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Quantitative Fluorescence

    Step by Step Guide for FRAP Experiments

    Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) has been considered the most widely applied method for observing translational diffusion processes of macromolecules. The resulting information can be…
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  • Science Lab Topic: White Confocal

    The White Confocal – Spectral Gaps Closed

    This article summarizes the development and differences in design and functionality of confocal technology as far as spectral properties are concerned, from classical filter-based excitation and…
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  • Science Lab Topic: White Confocal

    The White Confocal

    Modern biomedical research is currently dominated by imaging and measuring with optical microscopes. One branch of the microscopy technology is confocal microscopy. For correlation purposes,…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Detectors for Sensitive Detection: HyD

    This article discusses detectors (more precisely: sensors), that are employed in single point, i.e. true confocal scanning microscopes. The sensors in such systems are usually photomultiplier tubes.…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Molecular Developmental Biology: Norwegian Marine Research Scientists Solve the Mysteries of Evolution

    The human nervous system is an infinitely complex network consisting of some 100 billions of neurons. It is the result of many-faceted evolutionary processes spanning millions of years which, like the…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Neuroscience

    Optogenetics

    Optogenetics is a technique that allows light-controlled responses of transfected cells. The cells are genetically modified by introduction of genes that code for light-induced channels or ion pumps.…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Sensors for True Confocal Scanning

    In this article, advantages and disadvantages of different types of sensors for single point true confocal scanning devices are discussed. Traditionally, photomultiplier tubes have been employed in…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) and its Offspring

    FRAP (Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) can be used to study cellular protein dynamics: For visualization the protein of interest is fused to a fluorescent protein or a fluorescent dye. A…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Neuroscience

    Organotypic Cerebellar Cultures: Apoptotic Challenges and Detection

    Organotypic cultures of neuronal tissue were first introduced by Hogue in 1947 and have constituted a major breakthrough in the field of neuroscience. Since then, the technique was developed further…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Quantitative Fluorescence

    A mTurquoise-Based cAMP Sensor for Both FLIM and Ratiometric Read-Out Has Improved Dynamic Range

    FRET-based sensors for cyclic Adenosine Mono Phosphate (cAMP) have revolutionized the way in which this important intracellular messenger is studied. The currently prevailing sensors consist of the…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Quantitative Fluorescence

    ATP Changes the Fluorescence Lifetime of Cyan Fluorescent Protein via an Interaction with His148

    Recently, we described that ATP induces changes in YFP/CFP fluorescence intensities of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors based on CFP-YFP. To get insight into this phenomenon, we…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Apical Cargo Traverses Endosomal Compartments on the Passage to the Cell Surface

    Epithelial polarity is based on intracellular sorting machinery that maintains the asymmetric distribution of lipids and proteins to the cell surface. Dependent on their lipid raft affinity, newly…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Quantitative Fluorescence

    A Comparison of Donor-Acceptor Pairs for Genetically Encoded FRET Sensors: Application to the Epac cAMP Sensor as an Example

    We recently reported on CFP-Epac-YFP, an Epac-based single polypeptide FRET reporter to resolve cAMP levels in living cells. In this study, we compared and optimized the fluorescent protein…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Stereo Microscopy

    In the Footsteps of Linnaeus – Microscopic Imaging in Marine Biodiversity Research

    For the study of minute marine organisms such as free swimming larvae or bottom dwelling invertebrates it is a great advantage to have modern microscopic equipment in close proximity to the natural…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Quantitative Fluorescence

    Correcting Confocal Acquisition to Optimize Imaging of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer by Sensitized Emission

    Imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between suitable fluorophores is increasingly being used to study cellular processes with high spatiotemporal resolution. The genetically…
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