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  • TIRF microscopy image showing focal adhesions in Plexin-B2 mutant hNPCs compared to wild-type cells

    Multicellular Organization during Stem Cell Dynamics

    Multicellular organization, e.g. during tissue morphogenesis or of human embryonic stem cells, relies on collective cytoskeletal dynamics. During their studies of multicellular developing human…
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  • Epifluorescent and TIRF imaging

    Phosphoprotein Regulates Integrin Endosomal Trafficking

    Integrins are involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion. In addition, they mediate several signaling pathways, regulating e.g. cell motility. Caliva et al. discovered, with the help…
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  • Images from 2 time-lapse series of the same Sf21 moth larval cells

    Studying Actin Cytoskeleton and Microfilament Assembly

    This article demonstrates how actin microfilament assemblies can be clearly visualized with superior resolution at the plasma membrane of a cell using a DMi8 S Infinity TIRF High Power imaging…
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  • Plant Cell Development and Morphogenesis

    The article discusses how tubulin molecules, which make up microtubules, in plant cells can be studied with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to better understand tubulin…
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  • Where to go? Cellular Migration requires coordinated Transitions of Actin Cortex

    Plants, Bacteria, and Fungi possess a rigid cell wall that protects the cell and gives it shape. Animal cells, such as mammalian cells, have no outer wall, which exposes their plasma membrane to the…
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  • Initiation of Lamellipodia and Ruffles Involves Cooperation Between mDia1 and the Arp2/3 Complex

    Protrusion of lamellipodia and ruffles requires polymerization of branched actin filaments by the Arp2/3 complex. Although regulation of Arp2/3 complex activity has been extensively investigated, the…
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  • Botulinum Neurotoxin Type-A Enters a Non-Recycling Pool of Synaptic Vesicles

    Neuronal communication relies on synaptic vesicles undergoing regulated exocytosis and recycling for multiple rounds of fusion. Whether all synaptic vesicles have identical protein content has been…
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  • Video Talk by Daniel Axelrod: Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy

    Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy is a technique that only illuminates dye molecules near a surface. In this video, the pioneer of TIRF Microscopy describes what this technique…
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  • Controlling the TIRF Penetration Depth is Mandatory for Reproducible Results

    The main feature of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is the employment of an evanescent wave for the excitation of fluorophores instead of using direct light. A property of the…
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  • Widefield fluorescence image of brest carcinoma tumor cells expressing GFP tagged cell adhesion Molecule CD44 that is expressed on the cell membrane, imagined in TIRF.

    Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) is a special technique in fluorescence microscopy developed by Daniel Axelrod at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor in the early 1980s. TIRF microscopy…
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  • TIRF Microscopy of the Apical Membrane of Polarized Epithelial Cells

    Application of TIRF microscopy (Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence) allows the visualization of structures at the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells that have been hidden in conventional…
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  • Exploring Cell Logistics

    Using TIRF microscopy, scientists have been able to take a closer look at intracellular transport processes with the example of the galactose-binding protein Galectin-3, which has been identified as a…
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  • Fields of Application

  • This confocal image shows one scan layer of the acoel worm Isodiametra pulchra. The following parts are stained: cyan: nuclei, green: stem cells, magenta: expression of the genes T-Brain/Eomes (gonads und oocytes). Left: anterior. The worm is about 1 mm of size. Photo: Aina Børve, Sars

    Live Cell Imaging

    Shifting perspective from single microscope components to a full working live cell imaging solution, Leica Microsystems integrates microscope, LAS X imaging software, cameras, and dedicated…
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  • Leica photomanipulation


    The term photomanipulation encompasses a range of techniques that utilize the properties of fluorescent molecules to initiate events and observe how dynamic complexes behave over time in living cells.…
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  • Super-Resolution

    Find out more about Leica super-resolution microscopy solutions and how they can empower you to visualize in fine detail subcellular structures and dynamics.
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  • Leica Cell Biology

    Cell Biology

    When your research is centered on understanding the cellular basis of human health and disease, it is critical to investigate the cells of interest in spatiotemporal and molecular detail.…
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  • Virology

    Do your research interests focus on viral infection and disease? Find out how you can gain insights into virology with solutions for imaging and sample preparation from Leica Microsystems.
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