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  • Fluorescence Microscopy

    Fluorescence is one of the most commonly used physical phenomena in biological and analytical microscopy for its high sensitivity and high specificity. Fluorescence is a form of luminescence that…
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  • Micromanipulation

    Witness automated, fast micromanipulation with this easy and convenient system from Leica Microsystems. Fully equipped with inverted research microscope and electronic micromanipulators, these…
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  • Leica photomanipulation

    Photomanipulation

    The term photomanipulation encompasses a range of techniques that utilize the properties of fluorescent molecules to initiate events and observe how dynamic complexes behave over time in living cells.…
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  • Live Cell Imaging

    Shifting perspective from single microscope components to a full working live cell imaging solution, Leica Microsystems integrates microscope, LAS X imaging software, cameras, and dedicated…
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  • Cell Culture

    Growing cells under lab conditions is the base for scientists working in fields of cell or developmental biology, cancer research, or any kind of life science and pharma research. Find out how Leica…
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  • Virology

    Do your research interests focus on viral infection and disease? Find out how you can gain insights into virology with solutions for imaging and sample preparation from Leica Microsystems.
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  • Images from 2 time-lapse series of the same Sf21 moth larval cells
    Science Lab Topic: Widefield Microscopy

    Studying Actin Cytoskeleton and Microfilament Assembly

    This article demonstrates how actin microfilament assemblies can be clearly visualized with superior resolution at the plasma membrane of a cell using a DMi8 S Infinity TIRF High Power imaging…
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  • Virally labeled neurons (red) and astrocytes (green) in a cortical spheroid derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.
    Science Lab Topic: Widefield Microscopy

    Download The Guide to Live Cell Imaging

    In life science research, live cell imaging is an indispensable tool to visualize cells in a state as in vivo as possible. This E-book reviews a wide range of important considerations to take to…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Fluorescence Microscopy

    Plant Cell Development and Morphogenesis

    The article discusses how tubulin molecules, which make up microtubules, in plant cells can be studied with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to better understand tubulin…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Basics in Microscopy

    Factors to Consider When Selecting a Research Microscope

    An optical microscope is often one of the central devices in a life-science research lab. It can be used for various applications which shed light on many scientific questions. Thereby the…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Microscopy in Virology

    The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, causing the Covid-19 disease effects our world in all aspects. Research to find immunization and treatment methods, in other words to fight this virus, gained highest…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Laser Microdissection

    Observing the effect on transcription factor signaling and chromatin landscapes in cells infected with the human coronavirus 229E

    Viral infection triggers an inflammatory cellular response which is characterized by altered gene expression. In this study, the influence of coronaviruses on cellular NF-κB (transcription factor)…
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  • Science Lab Topic: TIRF Microscopy

    TIRF Publication List

    This monthly updated references list presents current papers using Leica AM TIRF in the major application fields for TIRF microscopy.
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  • Science Lab Topic: Live-Cell Imaging

    Where to go? Cellular Migration requires coordinated Transitions of Actin Cortex

    Plants, Bacteria, and Fungi possess a rigid cell wall that protects the cell and gives it shape. Animal cells, such as mammalian cells, have no outer wall, which exposes their plasma membrane to the…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Widefield Microscopy

    How to Develop an Airway Epithelial Cell Model

    The present study describes the optimal growth conditions for the proliferation and differentiation of bovine bronchial epithelial cells (BBECs). The cells are grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI)…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Widefield Microscopy

    Proline Metabolism is Essential for Trypanosoma brucei brucei Survival in the Tsetse Vector

    Bloodsucking insects play a major role in the transmission of pathogens that cause major tropical diseases. Their capacity to transmit these diseases is directly associated with the availability and…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    mTORC1 Promotes Proliferation of Immature Schwann Cells and Myelin Growth of Differentiated Schwann Cells

    The myelination of axons is essential for neuronal wiring and normal nervous system functions. In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SCs) form myelin sheaths around axons during nerve…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Live-Cell Imaging

    Solvent immersion imprint lithography

    We expand upon our recent, fundamental report on solvent immersion imprint lithography (SIIL) and describe a semi-automated and high-performance procedure for prototyping polymer microfluidics and…
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  • Science Lab Topic: CRISPR-Cas9

    Role of circadian gene Clock during differentiation of mouse pluripotent stem cells

    Biological rhythms controlled by the circadian clock are absent in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, they start to develop during the differentiation of pluripotent ESCs to downstream cells.…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    KChIP2 regulates the cardiac Ca²⁺ transient and myocyte contractility by targeting ryanodine receptor activity

    Pathologic electrical remodeling and attenuated cardiac contractility are featured characteristics of heart failure. Coinciding with these remodeling events is a loss of the K+ channel interacting…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Widefield Microscopy

    Effect of curcumin analogs onα-synuclein aggregation and cytotoxicity

    Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation into oligomers and fibrils is associated with dopaminergic neuron loss occurring in Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis. Compounds that modulate α-Syn aggregation…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Basics in Microscopy

    Koehler Illumination: A Brief History and a Practical Set Up in Five Easy Steps

    The technique of Koehler Illumination is one of the most important and fundamental techniques in achieving optimum imaging in any given light microscope set-up. Although it should be routinely used as…
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  • Mammalian cells can be distinguished according to their morphology. Fibroblasts (left) have a bipolar or multipolar shape. Epithelial-like cells (middle) show more regular dimensions and lymphoblast-like cells (right) are round and grow in suspension.
    Science Lab Topic: Live-Cell Imaging

    Introduction to Mammalian Cell Culture

    Mammalian cell culture is one of the basic pillars of life sciences. Without the ability to grow cells in the lab, the fast progress in disciplines like cell biology, immunology, or cancer research…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Basics in Microscopy

    Immersion Objectives: Using Oil, Glycerol, or Water to Overcome some of the Limits of Resolution

    To examine specimens at high magnifications using the microscope, there are a number of factors which need to be taken into consideration. These include resolution, numerical aperture (NA), the…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Basics in Microscopy

    Graphene-Based Microbots for Toxic Heavy Metal Removal and Recovery from Water

    Heavy metal contamination in water is a serious risk to the public health and other life forms on earth. Current research in nanotechnology is developing new nanosystems and nanomaterials for the fast…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Widefield Microscopy

    Introduction to Widefield Microscopy

    One of the most basic microscopy techniques is known as ‘Widefield Microscopy’. It is fundamentally any technique in which the entire specimen of interest is exposed to the light source with the…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Stereo Microscopy

    Coming to Grips with Biological Information Through Flexible Organic Electronics: Developing Bendable and Stretchable Biosensors and Device

    What do you associate with the word sensor? Perhaps technologies delivering automation in factories and other production sites? That may be what comes to mind, but advances in organic electronics are…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Fluorescence Microscopy

    What is Photomanipulation?

    The term photomanipulation describes a wide range of techniques that enable the microscopist the transition from passive observer to instigator of events by offering a way of interacting with their…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Digital Microscopy

    Quality with Confidence

    From routine quality assurance to advanced 3D analysis of complex surface structures, there is a digital microscope solution to meet almost any request
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  • Science Lab Topic: Fluorescence Microscopy

    Photoactivatable, photoconvertible, and photoswitchable Fluorescent Proteins

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) such as GFP, YFP or DsRed are powerful tools to visualize cellular components in living cells. Nevertheless, there are circumstances when classical FPs reach their limits.…
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  • Left: Tissue cells marked with an immunolabel (FITC) illuminated with wide-band UV excitation. Note the tissue structure with blue autofluorescence. Right: Same tissue and same immunostaining with FITC label illuminated with epi-illumination using narrow
    Science Lab Topic: Basics in Microscopy

    Milestones in Incident Light Fluorescence Microscopy

    Since the middle of the last century, fluorescence microscopy developed into a bio scientific tool with one of the biggest impacts on our understanding of life. Watching cells and proteins with the…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Fluorescence Microscopy

    Chronic Inflammation Under the Microscope

    In the course of chronic inflammation certain body areas are recurrently inflamed. This goes along with many human diseases. With the help of widefield light microscopy, the underlying processes can…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Basics in Microscopy

    Microscope Resolution: Concepts, Factors and Calculation

    In microscopy, the term ‘resolution’ is used to describe the ability of a microscope to distinguish detail. In other words, this is the minimum distance at which two distinct points of a specimen can…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Fluorescence Microscopy

    Gene Editing with CRISPR/Cas9 - Breakthrough in Genome Engineering

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is one of several different bacterial systems for defense against viral attacks. It consists of two main components. One is a small piece of RNA which binds to the viral target…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    Initiation of Lamellipodia and Ruffles Involves Cooperation Between mDia1 and the Arp2/3 Complex

    Protrusion of lamellipodia and ruffles requires polymerization of branched actin filaments by the Arp2/3 complex. Although regulation of Arp2/3 complex activity has been extensively investigated, the…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Super-Resolution

    Botulinum Neurotoxin Type-A Enters a Non-Recycling Pool of Synaptic Vesicles

    Neuronal communication relies on synaptic vesicles undergoing regulated exocytosis and recycling for multiple rounds of fusion. Whether all synaptic vesicles have identical protein content has been…
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  • C. Elegans
    Science Lab Topic: Stereo Microscopy

    Work Efficiently in Developmental Biology with Stereo and Confocal Microscopy: C. elegans

    For scientists, technicians, and teachers working with the worm C. elegans in the research lab or classroom, this report is intended to give useful information to help improve their daly work. The aim…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Widefield Microscopy

    Infinity Optical Systems

    “Infinity Optics” refers to the concept of a beam path with parallel rays between the objective and the tube lens of a microscope. Flat optical components can be brought into this “Infinity Space”…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Basics in Microscopy

    Color Infidelity: Why Using a Light Source Incorrectly is Cheating on your Data

    There are many influences on color in the imaging process including lighting, optics, sensor, and monitor, and ultimately print. The first, and generally most important, is lighting. There are plenty…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Fluorescence Microscopy

    Fluorescent Proteins Illuminate Cell Biology

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and GFP-like fluorescent proteins from other animals have had an important role in the technical innovations that have…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    iMSRC: Converting a Standard Automated Microscope into an Intelligent Screening Platform

    Microscopy in the context of biomedical research is demanding new tools to automatically detect and capture objects of interest. The few extant packages addressing this need, however, have enjoyed…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Fluorescence Microscopy

    How to Prepare Your Specimen for Immunofluorescence Microscopy

    Immunofluorescence (IF) is a powerful method for visualizing intracellular processes, conditions and structures. IF preparations can be analyzed by various microscopy techniques (e.g. CLSM,…
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  • Science Lab Topic: TIRF Microscopy

    Video Talk by Daniel Axelrod: Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy

    Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy is a technique that only illuminates dye molecules near a surface. In this video, the pioneer of TIRF Microscopy describes what this technique…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Live-Cell Imaging

    Immunotherapy to Combat Cancer: "Sleeping Beauty" – DNA Plasmid-based Gene Transfer System to Modify T Cells

    Fighting cancer is a major goal of present-day medicine. So far mainly surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy are utilized to extinguish cancerous tissue, or at least set limits to it. …
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  • Science Lab Topic: Neuroscience

    Video Talk by Karl Deisseroth: Optogenetics

    Optogenetics is a combination of genetics and optics to achieve a gain or loss of function of biochemical events such as action potentials in a particular neuron or tissue. Opsin genes encode proteins…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Neuroscience

    Optogenetic Toolkit Goes Multicolor

    Optogenetics is a technique that allows scientists to control neurons’ electrical activity with light by engineering them to express light-sensitive proteins. Within the past decade, it has become a…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Neuroscience

    Optogenetics

    Optogenetics is a technique that allows light-controlled responses of transfected cells. The cells are genetically modified by introduction of genes that code for light-induced channels or ion pumps.…
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  • Science Lab Topic: TIRF Microscopy

    Controlling the TIRF Penetration Depth is Mandatory for Reproducible Results

    The main feature of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is the employment of an evanescent wave for the excitation of fluorophores instead of using direct light. A property of the…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Fluorescence Microscopy

    Basic Principles of Luminescence

    There are a lot of light-emitting processes occurring in nature. Luminescence is an umbrella term for those kinds of events where light emission is not the result of high temperatures. This article…
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  • Widefield fluorescence image of brest carcinoma tumor cells expressing GFP tagged cell adhesion Molecule CD44 that is expressed on the cell membrane, imagined in TIRF.
    Science Lab Topic: TIRF Microscopy

    Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) is a special technique in fluorescence microscopy developed by Daniel Axelrod at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor in the early 1980s. TIRF microscopy…
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  • Science Lab Topic: TIRF Microscopy

    TIRF Microscopy Explores Cellular Transport Processes

    Due to their special role in organ function and the exchange of biological components some body cells developed certain polarization characteristics. These are reflected in differences of their plasma…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Confocal Microscopy

    Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) and its Offspring

    FRAP (Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) can be used to study cellular protein dynamics: For visualization the protein of interest is fused to a fluorescent protein or a fluorescent dye. A…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Basics in Microscopy

    Optical Contrast Methods

    Optical contrast methods give the potential to easily examine living and colorless specimens. Different microscopic techniques aim to change phase shifts caused by the interaction of light with the…
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  • Neurons, imaged in DIC
    Science Lab Topic: Basics in Microscopy

    Differential Interference Contrast (DIC)

    Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is a good alternative to brightfield microscopy for gaining proper images of unstained specimens that often only provide a weak image in…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Basics in Microscopy

    Integrated Modulation Contrast (IMC)

    Hoffman modulation contrast has established itself as a standard for the observation of unstained, low-contrast biological specimens. The integration of the modulator in the beam path of themodern…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Fluorescence Microscopy

    An Introduction to Fluorescence

    Fluorescence is widely used in microscopy and an important tool for observing the distribution of specific molecules. Most molecules in cells do not fluoresce. They therefore have to be marked with…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Fluorescence Microscopy

    Fluorescence in Microscopy

    Fluorescence microscopy is a special form of light microscopy. It uses the ability of fluorochromes to emit light after being excited with light of a certain wavelength. Proteins of interest can be…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Live-Cell Imaging

    TIRF Microscopy of the Apical Membrane of Polarized Epithelial Cells

    Application of TIRF microscopy (Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence) allows the visualization of structures at the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells that have been hidden in conventional…
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  • Science Lab Topic: Live-Cell Imaging

    Exploring Cell Logistics

    Using TIRF microscopy, scientists have been able to take a closer look at intracellular transport processes with the example of the galactose-binding protein Galectin-3, which has been identified as a…
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